LRD Booklets May 2018

Law at Work 2018

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Introduction

Introduction
 [pages 15-16] (794 words)

This 30th edition of Law at Work is published at a time of almost unprecedented political and economic uncertainty, as the UK navigates its exit from ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system

 [ch 1: page 17] (233 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

European Union law

 [ch 1: pages 17-18] (542 words)

Employment law post-Brexit


 [ch 1: pages 18-21] (1,210 words)

Human rights law

 [ch 1: pages 21-23] (546 words)

The International Labour Organisation (ILO)

 [ch 1: page 23] (106 words)

The employment tribunal system 


 [ch 1: pages 23-25] (1,016 words)

Personal injury claims

 [ch 1: pages 25-26] (656 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes


 [ch 1: page 27] (253 words)

The Modern Slavery Act 2015


 [ch 1: pages 27-28] (122 words)

The Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority


 [ch 1: page 28] (363 words)

Criminal law 


 [ch 1: page 29] (53 words)

Changes to employment regulation in Scotland 


 [ch 1: page 29] (341 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker 


 [ch 2: pages 30-31] (424 words)

This Chapter summarises the tests that are used to establish employment status and explains how they are applied by employment tribunals to different ...
Subscribers only

Main employment rights in summary


 [ch 2: pages 31-32] (582 words)

Employment status and the Taylor review 
 [ch 2: page 33] (256 words)

Genuine self-employment 
 [ch 2: pages 33-34] (262 words)

Employee, worker or self-employed?

 [ch 2: pages 34-35] (359 words)

Mutuality of obligation

 [ch 2: pages 35-36] (345 words)

Personal service


 [ch 2: page 36] (358 words)

Degree of control


 [ch 2: pages 36-37] (203 words)

Identifying false self-employment

 [ch 2: pages 37-39] (821 words)

Checklist: Are you really self-employed? 


 [ch 2: pages 39-40] (516 words)

Umbrella companies


 [ch 2: pages 40-41] (530 words)

Personal service companies


 [ch 2: page 42] (188 words)

Zero hours contract workers 


 [ch 2: pages 42-45] (1,223 words)

Part-time workers 


 [ch 2: pages 45-47] (1,261 words)

Homeworkers


 [ch 2: page 48] (65 words)

Volunteers


 [ch 2: page 48] (177 words)

Interns


 [ch 2: pages 48-49] (315 words)

Young workers

 [ch 2: page 49] (203 words)

Apprentices

 [ch 2: pages 49-51] (732 words)

Children

 [ch 2: page 51] (205 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees 


 [ch 2: pages 52-54] (1,022 words)

Agency workers


 [ch 2: page 54] (201 words)

Rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010


 [ch 2: pages 54-56] (509 words)

Improved pregnancy rights 


 [ch 2: pages 56-57] (466 words)

Who is protected by the AWRs?
 [ch 2: page 57] (340 words)

The Swedish derogation 


 [ch 2: pages 58-59] (578 words)

The Conduct of Employment Agencies Regulations


 [ch 2: pages 59-60] (348 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy


 [ch 2: page 60] (255 words)

Crown employees 


 [ch 2: page 60] (87 words)

Posted workers


 [ch 2: page 61] (351 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract

 [ch 3: pages 62-63] (939 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work are likely to have references from school or college, ...
Subscribers only

Checking a job applicant’s digital footprint 


 [ch 3: page 64] (236 words)

The right to work in the UK 


 [ch 3: pages 64-65] (556 words)

Ban on pre-employment health checks 


 [ch 3: pages 65-66] (234 words)

Criminal convictions 


 [ch 3: pages 66-67] (538 words)

Criminal records checks
 [ch 3: pages 66-67] (763 words)

The employment contract 


 [ch 3: page 69] (412 words)

Written statement of employment particulars 


 [ch 3: pages 69-71] (857 words)

Terms of the contract 


 [ch 3: page 71] (52 words)

Express terms 


 [ch 3: pages 73-75] (1,701 words)

Implied terms 


 [ch 3: pages 75-79] (1,718 words)

Collective terms 


 [ch 3: page 79] (309 words)

Incorporation of collective terms
 [ch 3: pages 79-82] (1,271 words)

Illegal contract terms 


 [ch 3: pages 82-83] (333 words)

Restrictive covenants 


 [ch 3: page 83] (231 words)

Contract changes 


 [ch 3: pages 83-86] (1,145 words)

Breach of contract 


 [ch 3: page 86] (410 words)

Bringing a claim


 [ch 3: page 87] (390 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions 


 [ch 4: page 88] (318 words)

Under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, workers have the right to a minimum wage. The detail of the law is found in the National Minimum Wage ...
Subscribers only

The Living Wage Foundation 

 [ch 4: pages 88-89] (228 words)

Who is eligible for the National Minimum Wage

 [ch 4: page 89] (233 words)

Agricultural workers


 [ch 4: page 90] (270 words)

Excluded workers 


 [ch 4: pages 90-91] (144 words)

Calculating the National Minimum Wage 


 [ch 4: pages 91-92] (711 words)

Hourly-paid workers 


 [ch 4: pages 92-93] (187 words)

Time spent sleeping


 [ch 4: pages 93-94] (706 words)

Time spent travelling between assignments 


 [ch 4: pages 94-95] (198 words)

Mobile workers’ travel to and from first and last assignment 
 [ch 4: page 95] (140 words)

Unmeasured work 


 [ch 4: pages 95-96] (480 words)

Tips 


 [ch 4: pages 96-97] (342 words)

Piece workers (‘output’ work)
 [ch 4: page 97] (251 words)

Homeworkers


 [ch 4: page 98] (72 words)

Records 


 [ch 4: page 98] (60 words)

HMRC NMW enforcement powers and penalties
 [ch 4: pages 98-99] (326 words)

Bringing an employment tribunal claim for the NMW


 [ch 4: page 99] (140 words)

Some NMW avoidance devices


 [ch 4: page 99] (166 words)

Pay slips and pay intervals 


 [ch 4: page 100] (238 words)

Deductions and underpayments 


 [ch 4: pages 100-103] (1,263 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions 
 [ch 4: page 103] (380 words)

Guarantee pay (pay during lay-off or short-time working)
 [ch 4: pages 104-105] (696 words)

Paid medical suspension 


 [ch 4: page 105] (115 words)

Paid maternity suspension 


 [ch 4: pages 105-106] (323 words)

Breastfeeding at work 
 [ch 4: pages 106-107] (624 words)

Overtime pay 


 [ch 4: page 108] (346 words)

Pensions

 [ch 4: pages 108-109] (704 words)

New state pension 
 [ch 4: pages 110-111] (273 words)

Public sector pension changes


 [ch 4: page 111] (106 words)

Working hours and breaks 


 [ch 4: pages 111-113] (715 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week 


 [ch 4: page 113] (206 words)

Rest breaks 


 [ch 4: pages 113-114] (535 words)

Daily and weekly rest breaks

 [ch 4: page 114] (74 words)

Travelling to and from work (mobile workers)
 [ch 4: pages 114-115] (242 words)

Time “on call”


 [ch 4: pages 115-116] (558 words)

Night workers 


 [ch 4: page 116] (222 words)

Compensation 
 [ch 4: pages 116-117] (580 words)

Sunday working 


 [ch 4: page 118] (384 words)

Holidays and holiday pay 


 [ch 4: pages 118-121] (1,097 words)

Holiday pay 
 [ch 4: pages 121-124] (1,496 words)

Holidays and sickness absence 


 [ch 4: page 124] (166 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness 


 [ch 4: pages 124-125] (442 words)

Falling ill on holiday 


 [ch 4: pages 125-126] (257 words)

Bank holidays 


 [ch 4: page 126] (247 words)

Time off for public duties 


 [ch 4: pages 126-127] (242 words)

Time off for study or training 


 [ch 4: pages 127-128] (377 words)

Other statutory rights to time off 


 [ch 4: page 128] (55 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation 


 [ch 5: page 129] (406 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), as amended. In ...
Subscribers only

Trade union rights are human rights 


 [ch 5: pages 129-130] (376 words)

International labour laws and conventions


 [ch 5: pages 130-131] (478 words)

Ban on inducements 


 [ch 5: pages 132-134] (1,040 words)

Closed shop

 [ch 5: page 134] (54 words)

Voluntary recognition of a trade union


 [ch 5: pages 134-135] (352 words)

The statutory recognition procedure 


 [ch 5: pages 135-136] (581 words)

The bargaining unit
 [ch 5: pages 136-137] (234 words)

Initial threshold of support
 [ch 5: pages 137-138] (443 words)

The Boots recognition saga — why the statutory recognition procedure is ‘unfit for purpose’


 [ch 5: pages 138-140] (924 words)

Is it a trade union at all?

 [ch 5: page 140] (216 words)

The statutory recognition ballot 


 [ch 5: pages 141-142] (629 words)

The bargaining agenda
 [ch 5: pages 142-143] (687 words)

Derecognition 


 [ch 5: pages 143-144] (198 words)

Rights to time off
 [ch 5: pages 144-149] (2,364 words)

Rights to information for collective bargaining 


 [ch 5: pages 149-150] (511 words)

Protection of union members from victimisation 


 [ch 5: pages 150-154] (1,746 words)

Anti-union blacklisting 


 [ch 5: pages 154-156] (1,151 words)

Interim relief 


 [ch 5: pages 157-158] (497 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives 


 [ch 5: page 158] (93 words)

Employee reps and European Works Councils


 [ch 5: page 158] (200 words)

National level information and consultation 


 [ch 5: pages 158-160] (599 words)

Internal union matters

 [ch 5: pages 160-161] (505 words)

Membership audit

 [ch 5: page 161] (142 words)

Certification Officer

 [ch 5: pages 161-163] (675 words)

Industrial action return
 [ch 5: page 163] (87 words)

Check-off arrangements 


 [ch 5: pages 163-164] (346 words)

Political funds


 [ch 5: pages 164-165] (734 words)

Data protection 
 [ch 5: page 165] (67 words)

Chapter 6

6. Industrial action 


 [ch 6: page 166] (101 words)

Strike laws in the United Kingdom are among the most restrictive in the developed world. These laws became even harder to comply with when new ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike


 [ch 6: page 166] (384 words)

International criticism


 [ch 6: page 167] (165 words)

European Union law


 [ch 6: pages 167-169] (885 words)

The “immunities” [ch 6: page 169] (148 words)

Trade dispute 


 [ch 6: pages 169-171] (736 words)

Workplace reps 


 [ch 6: page 171] (147 words)

Official or unofficial action 


 [ch 6: pages 171-172] (606 words)

Strike law and the Trade Union Act 2016
 [ch 6: page 173] (357 words)

Balloting 


 [ch 6: page 174] (50 words)

Ballot thresholds


 [ch 6: pages 174-176] (829 words)

The ballot process


 [ch 6: pages 176-179] (1,676 words)

Limited life of ballot mandate

 [ch 6: page 180] (200 words)

Electronic strike balloting 
 [ch 6: page 180] (82 words)

Requirements to notify employers 


 [ch 6: pages 180-181] (598 words)

Ban on using agency workers to replace striking workers 


 [ch 6: pages 181-182] (209 words)

Picketing 


 [ch 6: page 182] (155 words)

Picket supervisor

 [ch 6: pages 182-183] (209 words)

Letter of authorisation

 [ch 6: pages 183-184] (724 words)

Picket location 

 [ch 6: pages 184-185] (511 words)

Criminal law


 [ch 6: pages 185-186] (176 words)

Injunctions 


 [ch 6: pages 186-187] (563 words)

Dismissal 


 [ch 6: page 187] (164 words)

Detriment short of dismissal 


 [ch 6: page 187] (112 words)

Deducting pay 


 [ch 6: page 188] (455 words)

Lockouts 


 [ch 6: pages 188-189] (258 words)

State benefits for strikers 


 [ch 6: page 189] (219 words)

Annual reporting duty — industrial action 


 [ch 6: page 190] (147 words)

Chapter 7

7. Discrimination 


 [ch 7: page 191] (339 words)

Equality law in the UK is regulated by the Equality Act 2010 (EA 10). The EA 10 must be interpreted so far as possible in line with European Union ...
Subscribers only

The protected characteristics 


 [ch 7: pages 191-192] (155 words)

Age 


 [ch 7: page 192] (280 words)

Disability 


 [ch 7: pages 193-194] (507 words)

Proving disability 


 [ch 7: page 194] (377 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered 


 [ch 7: pages 194-195] (86 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability 


 [ch 7: pages 195-196] (654 words)

Certain conditions are deemed a disability 


 [ch 7: page 196] (147 words)

Progressive conditions 


 [ch 7: page 197] (237 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment 


 [ch 7: pages 197-198] (289 words)

Recurring conditions 


 [ch 7: page 198] (85 words)

Perceived disability 

 [ch 7: page 198] (282 words)

Gender reassignment 


 [ch 7: pages 199-200] (717 words)

Marriage and civil partnership 


 [ch 7: pages 200-201] (520 words)

Sexual orientation 


 [ch 7: page 201] (39 words)

Race 


 [ch 7: page 202] (413 words)

Caste 


 [ch 7: page 203] (166 words)

Religion or belief 


 [ch 7: pages 203-205] (1,092 words)

Political belief 


 [ch 7: page 205] (109 words)

Pregnancy or maternity 


 [ch 7: pages 206-207] (383 words)

Surrogacy 


 [ch 7: page 207] (162 words)

IVF 


 [ch 7: page 207] (154 words)

Sex or gender 


 [ch 7: pages 207-208] (198 words)

Who is protected by the Equality Act 2010


 [ch 7: pages 208-209] (285 words)

Volunteers 


 [ch 7: page 209] (98 words)

Interns 


 [ch 7: page 209] (127 words)

Workers outside Great Britain 


 [ch 7: pages 209-210] (133 words)

Illegal workers and discrimination 


 [ch 7: page 210] (281 words)

Conduct prohibited by the Equality Act 2010


 [ch 7: page 210] (90 words)

Direct discrimination 


 [ch 7: page 211] (461 words)

Associative and perceptive discrimination 


 [ch 7: page 212] (323 words)

Less favourable treatment 


 [ch 7: pages 212-213] (468 words)

The need for a comparator 


 [ch 7: pages 213-214] (178 words)

Detriment


 [ch 7: page 214] (103 words)

Direct pregnancy and maternity discrimination
 [ch 7: pages 214-215] (621 words)

No defence to direct discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 215-216] (401 words)

Exceptions
 [ch 7: pages 216-217] (227 words)

Proving direct discrimination — the burden of proof
 [ch 7: pages 217-218] (486 words)

Indirect discrimination 


 [ch 7: pages 218-220] (803 words)

Defence to indirect discrimination 


 [ch 7: page 220] (357 words)

Harassment 


 [ch 7: pages 221-223] (1,180 words)

Sexual harassment 


 [ch 7: pages 223-224] (406 words)

Third party harassment 


 [ch 7: pages 224-225] (290 words)

Victimisation 


 [ch 7: pages 225-226] (653 words)

The employer’s liability 


 [ch 7: pages 227-229] (1,385 words)

Disability discrimination
 [ch 7: pages 229-230] (235 words)

Discrimination ‘arising from’ disability 


 [ch 7: pages 230-231] (547 words)

Reasonable adjustments 


 [ch 7: pages 231-233] (549 words)

Auxiliary aids 


 [ch 7: page 233] (71 words)

Physical features 


 [ch 7: page 233] (79 words)

When is an adjustment “reasonable”?
 [ch 7: pages 233-235] (785 words)

Applying for jobs


 [ch 7: pages 235-236] (510 words)

Access to promotion and job changes 


 [ch 7: page 236] (234 words)

Voluntary positive action in recruitment and promotion 


 [ch 7: pages 236-237] (161 words)

Terms and conditions 


 [ch 7: page 237] (227 words)

Equality-based tribunal challenges to public sector pension cuts 
 [ch 7: pages 237-238] (497 words)

Challenging cuts to terms and conditions 
 [ch 7: page 239] (217 words)

Dress codes 


 [ch 7: pages 239-240] (668 words)

Working hours and work organisation 


 [ch 7: pages 241-242] (677 words)

Language at work


 [ch 7: pages 242-243] (628 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures 


 [ch 7: pages 243-244] (368 words)

Dismissal 


 [ch 7: pages 244-245] (152 words)

Redundancy 


 [ch 7: page 245] (28 words)

Retirement 


 [ch 7: pages 245-246] (628 words)

Equal pay 


 [ch 7: pages 246-247] (370 words)

Sex equality clause 


 [ch 7: page 247] (92 words)

What terms are covered by the sex equality clause? 


 [ch 7: pages 247-248] (277 words)

What is equal work? 


 [ch 7: pages 248-249] (619 words)

Who can an employee compare herself with? 


 [ch 7: pages 249-251] (928 words)

The ‘genuine material factor’ defence 


 [ch 7: pages 251-252] (662 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay 


 [ch 7: pages 252-253] (336 words)

Part-time work and equal pay 


 [ch 7: page 253] (158 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay 


 [ch 7: page 253] (54 words)

Length of service 


 [ch 7: page 254] (34 words)

Time limits 


 [ch 7: page 254] (233 words)

What can be claimed? 


 [ch 7: page 254] (68 words)

Pay transparency and equal pay audits 


 [ch 7: pages 254-255] (146 words)

Compulsory gender pay gap reporting


 [ch 7: pages 255-256] (579 words)

Asking questions about pay

 [ch 7: pages 256-257] (204 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty 


 [ch 7: pages 257-258] (474 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim


 [ch 7: page 258] (136 words)

Written grievance


 [ch 7: pages 258-259] (201 words)

Asking questions about suspected discrimination 


 [ch 7: page 259] (159 words)

Time limits


 [ch 7: page 259] (154 words)

Continuing discrimination 


 [ch 7: pages 259-260] (357 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim 


 [ch 7: pages 260-261] (246 words)

Length of service 


 [ch 7: page 261] (33 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers 


 [ch 7: page 261] (78 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers 


 [ch 7: page 261] (32 words)

Power to make recommendations 


 [ch 7: page 261] (173 words)

Compensation 


 [ch 7: pages 262-263] (816 words)

Chapter 8

8. Sick pay and sickness absence 


 [ch 8: page 264] (303 words)

An employer must provide employees with details of their sick pay entitlement as part of the written statement of employment particulars within two ...
Subscribers only

Proposals for future reform of SSP and Fit Notes
 [ch 8: pages 264-265] (353 words)

Eligibility for SSP 


 [ch 8: page 265] (251 words)

The Fit Note 


 [ch 8: pages 266-267] (618 words)

The Fit for Work Service 


 [ch 8: page 267] (131 words)

Occupational sick pay 


 [ch 8: pages 267-269] (889 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay 


 [ch 8: pages 269-271] (952 words)

Disability and sick pay 


 [ch 8: page 271] (96 words)

Phased returns and sick pay 


 [ch 8: pages 271-272] (244 words)

Sick pay and IVF treatment and/or pregnancy


 [ch 8: page 272] (162 words)

Sick leave

 [ch 8: pages 272-273] (454 words)

Absence management procedures 


 [ch 8: pages 273-274] (232 words)

Equality issues in absence management procedures


 [ch 8: pages 274-275] (579 words)

Sickness absence dismissals and disability discrimination 


 [ch 8: pages 275-277] (803 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness absence 


 [ch 8: page 277] (361 words)

Sickness absence and unfair dismissal 

 [ch 8: page 277] (41 words)

Long-term sickness absence


 [ch 8: pages 278-282] (1,749 words)

Dismissal due to unsatisfactory attendance 


 [ch 8: pages 282-284] (1,003 words)

Sickness absence and ‘frustration of contract’ 


 [ch 8: pages 284-285] (207 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period 


 [ch 8: page 285] (78 words)

Sickness absence and strike action 


 [ch 8: page 285] (238 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection 


 [ch 8: page 286] (127 words)

The HSE management standards

 [ch 8: page 286] (147 words)

Government-commissioned review into mental health at work
 [ch 8: pages 286-287] (227 words)

Medical reports and the law 


 [ch 8: pages 287-288] (322 words)

Pre-employment health checks 


 [ch 8: page 288] (66 words)

Chapter 9

9. Rights to time off work for working parents and carers 


 [ch 9: page 289] (334 words)

This Chapter sets out the rights available to working parents and carers. 


 ...
Subscribers only

Rights to time off for antenatal care


 [ch 9: pages 289-290] (182 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments


 [ch 9: page 290] (201 words)

Time off rights for prospective adopters


 [ch 9: page 290] (179 words)

Is there a right to time off for IVF appointments? 


 [ch 9: pages 290-291] (243 words)

Enforcing rights to time off 


 [ch 9: page 291] (64 words)

Eligibility for statutory maternity leave 


 [ch 9: page 291] (100 words)

Eligibility for statutory adoption leave

 [ch 9: pages 291-292] (100 words)

Key elements of statutory maternity leave 


 [ch 9: page 292] (80 words)

Key elements of statutory adoption leave

 [ch 9: page 292] (48 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave 


 [ch 9: page 292] (210 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave 


 [ch 9: page 293] (120 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date 


 [ch 9: page 293] (76 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date 


 [ch 9: page 293] (46 words)

Returning to work early 


 [ch 9: page 293] (47 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave

 [ch 9: page 293] (121 words)

Eligibility for shared parental leave (SPL)
 [ch 9: page 294] (412 words)

Challenging unfairness in the SPL system
 [ch 9: page 295] (409 words)

Key elements of Shared Parental Leave


 [ch 9: page 296] (201 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave 


 [ch 9: page 296] (137 words)

Can a mother change her mind?
 [ch 9: pages 296-297] (141 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL


 [ch 9: page 297] (289 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave


 [ch 9: page 298] (117 words)

Is SPL suitable?
 [ch 9: page 298] (244 words)

Rights during leave


 [ch 9: pages 298-299] (225 words)

Contact during leave


 [ch 9: page 299] (138 words)

Keeping in Touch (KIT and SPLIT) days 


 [ch 9: pages 299-300] (269 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave 


 [ch 9: page 300] (277 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave


 [ch 9: pages 300-301] (200 words)

Returning to work 


 [ch 9: pages 301-302] (557 words)

Statutory Maternity Pay


 [ch 9: pages 302-303] (320 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) 


 [ch 9: page 303] (170 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay 


 [ch 9: page 303] (115 words)

Statutory Paternity Pay 


 [ch 9: page 304] (41 words)

Statutory Shared Parental Pay 


 [ch 9: page 304] (188 words)

Contractual maternity, shared parental or adoption pay 


 [ch 9: pages 304-305] (297 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay 


 [ch 9: page 305] (115 words)

Right to paid maternity suspension 


 [ch 9: page 305] (105 words)

Unpaid parental leave 


 [ch 9: pages 305-306] (405 words)

Leave for family emergencies 


 [ch 9: pages 306-307] (539 words)

The right to request flexible working 


 [ch 9: pages 307-308] (365 words)

The employee’s request


 [ch 9: pages 308-309] (256 words)

The employer’s response 


 [ch 9: page 309] (223 words)

The decision


 [ch 9: pages 309-312] (1,171 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 313] (286 words)

To bring a claim for unfair dismissal you must: 


 ...
Subscribers only

What is a dismissal? 


 [ch 10: pages 313-314] (453 words)

Resignation 


 [ch 10: page 315] (568 words)

Notice

 [ch 10: page 316] (80 words)

When employers give notice


 [ch 10: page 316] (277 words)

Payment in lieu of notice 


 [ch 10: pages 316-317] (240 words)

When employees give notice


 [ch 10: page 317] (311 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence 


 [ch 10: page 318] (73 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract 


 [ch 10: page 318] (70 words)

Constructive dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 318] (137 words)

Fundamental contract breach


 [ch 10: pages 318-320] (477 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach


 [ch 10: page 320] (122 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach


 [ch 10: pages 320-321] (779 words)

Grievance 


 [ch 10: pages 321-323] (491 words)

Last straw cases


 [ch 10: page 323] (128 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks


 [ch 10: pages 323-324] (465 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair


 [ch 10: pages 324-325] (228 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 325] (120 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 325] (135 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable?
 [ch 10: page 325] (112 words)

The band of reasonable responses


 [ch 10: page 326] (306 words)

The importance of consistency


 [ch 10: pages 326-327] (345 words)

Capability dismissals
 [ch 10: page 327] (262 words)

Conduct dismissals
 [ch 10: pages 328-329] (498 words)

Gross misconduct 


 [ch 10: pages 329-330] (508 words)

Disciplinary procedures 


 [ch 10: pages 330-333] (1,249 words)

Warnings 


 [ch 10: pages 333-335] (969 words)

Appeals


 [ch 10: pages 335-336] (377 words)

Redundancy 


 [ch 10: page 336] (99 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction 


 [ch 10: page 336] (73 words)

Loss of driving licence


 [ch 10: page 336] (90 words)

Immigration status 


 [ch 10: page 337] (364 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason 


 [ch 10: pages 337-338] (192 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree changes to terms and conditions 


 [ch 10: pages 338-340] (900 words)

Dismissals due to breakdown in trust and confidence 


 [ch 10: page 340] (243 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure 


 [ch 10: page 340] (131 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant


 [ch 10: page 341] (72 words)

Dismissal for manifesting offensive political opinions 


 [ch 10: page 341] (138 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder


 [ch 10: page 341] (113 words)

Dismissal for ending and non-renewal of a fixed-term contract


 [ch 10: pages 341-342] (147 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence


 [ch 10: page 342] (94 words)

Retirement not a fair reason for dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 342] (82 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 342] (77 words)

Dismissal and pregnancy and other parental rights 


 [ch 10: pages 342-343] (261 words)

Dismissals and business transfers 


 [ch 10: page 343] (78 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership 


 [ch 10: pages 343-344] (377 words)

Dismissals and union recognition 


 [ch 10: page 344] (28 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting 


 [ch 10: page 344] (36 words)

Dismissals and representation rights 


 [ch 10: page 344] (36 words)

Dismissal and industrial action 


 [ch 10: pages 344-345] (492 words)

Dismissal for enforcing a statutory right 


 [ch 10: page 345] (139 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions 


 [ch 10: page 346] (43 words)

Dismissal of part-time, fixed-term or employed agency workers 


 [ch 10: page 346] (37 words)

Dismissal of zero hours contract workers


 [ch 10: page 346] (43 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety 


 [ch 10: pages 346-347] (299 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays 


 [ch 10: page 347] (33 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees 


 [ch 10: page 347] (60 words)

Pension auto-enrolment 
 [ch 10: page 347] (38 words)

National Minimum Wage and working time rights 


 [ch 10: page 347] (33 words)

Dismissal for whistleblowing 


 [ch 10: page 347] (33 words)

The effective date of termination 


 [ch 10: pages 347-349] (1,167 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim 


 [ch 10: pages 350-351] (628 words)

Continuous employment 


 [ch 10: page 351] (335 words)

The statutory rules on service continuity


 [ch 10: pages 352-354] (905 words)

Illegality and unfair dismissal rights 


 [ch 10: page 354] (302 words)

Remedies: reinstatement or re-engagement


 [ch 10: pages 354-356] (531 words)

Compensation 


 [ch 10: page 356] (52 words)

The basic award 


 [ch 10: pages 356-357] (340 words)

The compensatory award 


 [ch 10: page 357] (188 words)

What can be claimed 


 [ch 10: pages 357-358] (352 words)

Mitigating losses 


 [ch 10: pages 358-359] (586 words)

Contributory fault 


 [ch 10: pages 359-360] (243 words)

Other deductions and adjustments 


 [ch 10: page 360] (255 words)

The statutory cap 


 [ch 10: pages 360-361] (188 words)

The additional award 


 [ch 10: page 361] (67 words)

Interest and tax 


 [ch 10: page 361] (128 words)

Insolvency 


 [ch 10: pages 361-362] (211 words)

Wrongful dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 362] (195 words)

The statutory right to be accompanied 


 [ch 10: pages 362-364] (973 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy

 [ch 11: pages 365-367] (1,129 words)

Not every situation in which employees lose their job through no fault of their own is covered by redundancy law and confusingly, “redundancy” ...
Subscribers only

Relocation redundancy 


 [ch 11: pages 367-369] (785 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties 


 [ch 11: pages 369-370] (674 words)

Has there been a dismissal? 


 [ch 11: page 370] (121 words)

Voluntary redundancy 


 [ch 11: pages 370-371] (467 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 


 [ch 11: pages 371-372] (414 words)

Notice 


 [ch 11: pages 372-373] (323 words)

Collective redundancy consultation 


 [ch 11: pages 373-374] (493 words)

The duty to provide information to reps 


 [ch 11: pages 374-375] (231 words)

Collective consultation, data protection and confidentiality 


 [ch 11: page 375] (142 words)

When must consultation begin? 


 [ch 11: pages 375-376] (604 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation 


 [ch 11: pages 377-378] (643 words)

When does consultation end? 


 [ch 11: page 378] (200 words)

Calculating the number of employees


 [ch 11: page 379] (295 words)

Significant changes to terms and conditions 


 [ch 11: page 379] (182 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 


 [ch 11: page 380] (217 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation 


 [ch 11: page 380] (81 words)

Who should be consulted 


 [ch 11: pages 380-382] (676 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training 


 [ch 11: page 382] (119 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BEIS 


 [ch 11: page 382] (103 words)

Protective award for failure to consult collectively 


 [ch 11: pages 382-383] (191 words)

Calculating the protective award 


 [ch 11: page 383] (288 words)

The ‘special circumstances’ defence 


 [ch 11: pages 383-385] (698 words)

Selection for redundancy 


 [ch 11: pages 385-386] (397 words)

Deciding on the selection pool 


 [ch 11: page 386] (279 words)

Selection criteria and methods 


 [ch 11: page 387] (305 words)

Disability 


 [ch 11: pages 387-389] (616 words)

Age 


 [ch 11: page 389] (102 words)

Last in, first out

 [ch 11: page 389] (227 words)

Trade union membership and activities 


 [ch 11: page 390] (287 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination 


 [ch 11: page 390] (76 words)

Selection for redundancy during maternity leave

 [ch 11: pages 390-392] (713 words)

Part-time and fixed-term employees

 [ch 11: pages 392-393] (258 words)

Apprentices 


 [ch 11: page 393] (321 words)

Individual redundancy consultation 


 [ch 11: pages 394-395] (721 words)

Alternative work 


 [ch 11: pages 395-397] (949 words)

The statutory trial period 


 [ch 11: pages 397-398] (224 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available vacancy 


 [ch 11: pages 398-400] (1,079 words)

Looking for work 


 [ch 11: page 400] (108 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy 


 [ch 11: pages 400-402] (604 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals 


 [ch 11: pages 402-403] (466 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights 


 [ch 11: pages 403-404] (101 words)

Statutory redundancy pay 


 [ch 11: pages 404-405] (419 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay 


 [ch 11: page 405] (23 words)

Proving a contractual right to redundancy pay

 [ch 11: pages 405-407] (919 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination 


 [ch 11: page 407] (141 words)

Public sector redundancy pay


 [ch 11: pages 407-410] (1,091 words)

Redundancy payments and tax 


 [ch 11: page 410] (77 words)

Redundancy pay linked to lay-off and short time working 


 [ch 11: pages 410-411] (477 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency 


 [ch 11: pages 411-413] (616 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE 


 [ch 12: page 414] (341 words)

Business transfers and outsourcing, and their effect on the employment relationship, are regulated by the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of ...
Subscribers only

Some key facts about TUPE 


 [ch 12: pages 414-415] (432 words)

Relevant transfers


 [ch 12: page 416] (170 words)

Business transfers 


 [ch 12: pages 416-417] (596 words)

Service provision changes 


 [ch 12: pages 417-418] (331 words)

No change in commissioning client

 [ch 12: pages 418-419] (265 words)

Similarity of activities

 [ch 12: pages 419-420] (516 words)

Organised grouping of employees
 [ch 12: pages 420-421] (571 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change 
 [ch 12: page 421] (72 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration 
 [ch 12: pages 421-422] (493 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods 
 [ch 12: page 423] (187 words)

Transfers to more than one transferee
 [ch 12: page 423] (229 words)

Service fragmentation
 [ch 12: pages 423-424] (371 words)

Who transfers?

 [ch 12: pages 424-427] (1,161 words)

The transfer date


 [ch 12: page 427] (128 words)

Objecting to a transfer 


 [ch 12: pages 427-428] (147 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change 


 [ch 12: page 428] (395 words)

Workforce reorganisation before a transfer 


 [ch 12: pages 428-430] (892 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE 


 [ch 12: page 431] (257 words)

Who must be informed and consulted 


 [ch 12: pages 431-432] (543 words)

What information must be provided to reps? 


 [ch 12: pages 432-433] (278 words)

Timescale for TUPE consultation 


 [ch 12: page 433] (247 words)

Enforcement — protective award


 [ch 12: page 434] (232 words)

The special circumstances defence 


 [ch 12: page 434] (91 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies 


 [ch 12: pages 434-436] (687 words)

Employee liability information 


 [ch 12: page 436] (135 words)

Transfers within public administration 


 [ch 12: pages 436-437] (218 words)

Return of the two-tier workforce 


 [ch 12: pages 437-438] (304 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions 


 [ch 12: page 438] (287 words)

TUPE and pensions 


 [ch 12: pages 438-439] (271 words)

Early retirement benefits


 [ch 12: page 439] (160 words)

Occupational pensions
 [ch 12: pages 439-440] (379 words)

Fair Deal for Pensions


 [ch 12: pages 440-441] (425 words)

Collective agreements and union recognition 


 [ch 12: page 441] (153 words)

TUPE and contract change
 [ch 12: page 442] (134 words)

Changes to individual contract terms

 [ch 12: page 442] (243 words)

Economic, technical or organisational reason 


 [ch 12: pages 442-443] (539 words)

Changes to collective terms 


 [ch 12: page 444] (364 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining 


 [ch 12: pages 444-446] (580 words)

Contract changes unconnected to the transfer 


 [ch 12: page 446] (132 words)

How long are contract terms protected by TUPE? 


 [ch 12: page 446] (130 words)

TUPE protection against unfair dismissal 


 [ch 12: pages 446-448] (818 words)

TUPE and insolvency 


 [ch 12: pages 448-449] (239 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency 


 [ch 12: page 449] (193 words)

Winding up the business 


 [ch 12: page 449] (94 words)

Chapter 13

13. Whistleblowing

 [ch 13: page 450] (97 words)

Under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (PIDA), employees and workers who disclose information about alleged wrongdoing at work ...
Subscribers only

Who is protected?
 [ch 13: page 450] (247 words)

What disclosures are protected?
 [ch 13: pages 450-451] (193 words)

Who should the disclosures be made to?
 [ch 13: page 451] (78 words)

The public interest test


 [ch 13: pages 451-452] (543 words)

Who can the worker claim against?
 [ch 13: page 452] (56 words)

Dismissal 
 [ch 13: pages 452-453] (342 words)

Chapter 14

14. Bringing a tribunal claim


 [ch 14: page 454] (33 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing a claim in the employment tribunal and the main stages of the tribunal process. ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim


 [ch 14: page 454] (270 words)

Acas Early Conciliation 


 [ch 14: pages 454-456] (1,022 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas Early Conciliation 


 [ch 14: pages 456-457] (461 words)

Abolition of employment tribunal fees


 [ch 14: pages 457-458] (311 words)

The ET1 Claim Form 


 [ch 14: pages 458-459] (359 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim Form? 


 [ch 14: page 459] (203 words)

Time limits 


 [ch 14: pages 459-460] (254 words)

The overriding objective 
 [ch 14: page 460] (73 words)

Initial consideration 


 [ch 14: page 460] (85 words)

Case management orders 


 [ch 14: page 460] (162 words)

Judicial Assessment

 [ch 14: page 461] (95 words)

Schedule of loss


 [ch 14: page 461] (109 words)

Chronology


 [ch 14: page 461] (28 words)

Preliminary hearings 


 [ch 14: page 461] (211 words)

Deposit order

 [ch 14: page 462] (210 words)

Striking out

 [ch 14: page 462] (154 words)

Default judgment 
 [ch 14: page 462] (43 words)

Unless Orders


 [ch 14: pages 462-463] (89 words)

Exchange of documents 


 [ch 14: pages 463-464] (595 words)

Fixing a date for the hearing 


 [ch 14: page 464] (70 words)

Postponement requests 


 [ch 14: pages 464-465] (220 words)

Witness statements


 [ch 14: page 465] (285 words)

The tribunal panel


 [ch 14: page 465] (130 words)

The main hearing 


 [ch 14: page 466] (324 words)

Judgment 


 [ch 14: page 466] (160 words)

Costs orders 


 [ch 14: pages 467-468] (664 words)

Enforcing tribunal awards and costs orders 


 [ch 14: pages 468-469] (300 words)

Financial penalties for ‘aggravated breach’ 


 [ch 14: page 469] (79 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal 


 [ch 14: pages 469-470] (291 words)

Employees working outside Great Britain


 [ch 14: page 470] (58 words)

Settling a claim


 [ch 14: pages 470-471] (514 words)

Without prejudice discussions


 [ch 14: page 471] (136 words)

‘Protected conversations’
 
 [ch 14: pages 471-473] (548 words)

Improper behaviour 


 [ch 14: page 473] (168 words)

Mediation


 [ch 14: page 473] (85 words)

Chapter 15

15. Data protection, surveillance and monitoring 


 [ch 15: page 474] (313 words)

Data protection law is changing. A new EU law, the General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR), applies in the UK from 25 May 2018. The GDPR directly ...
Subscribers only

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
 [ch 15: pages 474-479] (1,743 words)

Casework

 [ch 15: page 479] (140 words)

Data subject access requests 

 [ch 15: page 479] (216 words)

Covert monitoring at work

 [ch 15: pages 479-481] (558 words)

Workplace emails
 [ch 15: page 481] (242 words)

Further information

Further information [pages 482-483] (801 words)

Copies of relevant statutes and regulations are available online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is published on the ...
Subscribers only