LRD Booklets May 2019

Law at Work 2019 - the trade union guide to employment law

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Introduction

Introduction

 [pages 15-16] (829 words)

This 31st edition of Law at Work is published at a time of great political and economic uncertainty. The UK government’s efforts to negotiate an ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system


 [ch 1: pages 16-20] (1,653 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

Human rights law


 [ch 1: pages 21-22] (529 words)

The International Labour Organisation (ILO)


 [ch 1: page 22] (112 words)

The employment tribunal system 



 [ch 1: pages 22-24] (879 words)

Personal injury claims


 [ch 1: pages 24-26] (708 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes



 [ch 1: pages 26-27] (370 words)

Modern Slavery



 [ch 1: page 27] (114 words)

The Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority



 [ch 1: pages 27-28] (242 words)

Criminal law 



 [ch 1: page 28] (53 words)

Changes to employment regulation in Scotland 



 [ch 1: page 28] (298 words)

Key employment law differences in Northern Ireland 
 [ch 1: page 29] (339 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker 



 [ch 2: page 30-31] (556 words)

This Chapter summarises the tests that are used to establish employment status and explains how they are applied by employment tribunals to different ...
Subscribers only

Main employment rights in summary



 [ch 2: pages 31-33] (594 words)

Employment status — reform proposals 

 [ch 2: page 33] (283 words)

Employee, worker or self-employed

 [ch 2: pages 34-35] (661 words)

Mutuality of obligation


 [ch 2: pages 35-36] (533 words)

Personal service



 [ch 2: pages 36-37] (368 words)

Degree of control



 [ch 2: page 37] (120 words)

Genuine self-employment 

 [ch 2: pages 37-38] (299 words)

Challenging false self-employment


 [ch 2: pages 38-40] (869 words)

Zero hours contract workers 



 [ch 2: pages 40-43] (1,406 words)

Part-time workers 



 [ch 2: pages 43-46] (1,468 words)

Homeworkers



 [ch 2: page 47] (65 words)

Volunteers



 [ch 2: page 47] (217 words)

Interns



 [ch 2: pages 47-48] (380 words)

Young workers


 [ch 2: page 48] (183 words)

Apprentices


 [ch 2: pages 49-51] (855 words)

Children


 [ch 2: page 51] (204 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees 



 [ch 2: pages 51-53] (871 words)

Agency workers



 [ch 2: page 53] (204 words)

Rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010



 [ch 2: pages 54-55] (587 words)

Improved pregnancy rights for agency workers 



 [ch 2: pages 55-56] (610 words)

Who is protected by the AWRs

 [ch 2: pages 56-58] (623 words)

The Swedish derogation 



 [ch 2: pages 58-59] (394 words)

The Conduct of Employment Agencies Regulations



 [ch 2: page 59] (269 words)

Ban on replacing striking workers
 [ch 2: page 60] (103 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy



 [ch 2: page 60] (268 words)

Labour supply intermediaries 
 [ch 2: pages 60-61] (206 words)

Umbrella companies



 [ch 2: pages 61-63] (1,025 words)

Personal service companies



 [ch 2: pages 63-64] (299 words)

Ground breaking collective agreement secures rights for Hermes workers
 [ch 2: page 64] (179 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract
 [ch 3: pages 65-66] (1,101 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work are likely to have references from school or college, ...
Subscribers only

Checking a job applicant’s digital footprint 



 [ch 3: pages 66-67 ] (237 words)

The right to work in the UK 



 [ch 3: pages 67-68] (441 words)

Ban on pre-employment health checks 



 [ch 3: page 68] (235 words)

Criminal convictions 



 [ch 3: pages 68-70] (501 words)

Criminal records checks

 [ch 3: pages 70-71] (733 words)

Pressure for change

 [ch 3: pages 71-72] (265 words)

The employment contract 



 [ch 3: page 72] (381 words)

Written statement of employment particulars 



 [ch 3: pages 73-75] (1,054 words)

Terms of the contract 



 [ch 3: page 75] (54 words)

Express terms 



 [ch 3: pages 76-79] (1,789 words)

Implied terms 



 [ch 3: pages 79-83] (1,727 words)

Collective terms 



 [ch 3: page 83] (303 words)

Incorporation of collective terms

 [ch 3: pages 84-86] (1,338 words)

Illegal contract terms 



 [ch 3: pages 86-87] (342 words)

Restrictive covenants 



 [ch 3: pages 87-88] (231 words)

Contract changes 



 [ch 3: pages 88-90] (1,290 words)

Breach of contract 



 [ch 3: pages 90-91] (441 words)

Bringing a claim



 [ch 3: pages 91-92] (412 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions 



 [ch 4: pages 91-92] (565 words)

Under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, workers have the right to a minimum wage. The detail of the law is found in the National Minimum Wage ...
Subscribers only

Who is eligible for the National Minimum Wage


 [ch 4: page 94] (232 words)

Agricultural workers



 [ch 4: page 95] (284 words)

Excluded workers 



 [ch 4: pages 95-96] (168 words)

Calculating the National Minimum Wage 



 [ch 4: page ] (701 words)

Hourly-paid workers 



 [ch 4: pages 97-98] (200 words)

Time spent sleeping



 [ch 4: pages 98-99] (741 words)

Time spent travelling between assignments 



 [ch 4: pages 99-100] (204 words)

Mobile workers travelling to and from first and last assignment 

 [ch 4: page 100] (147 words)

Unmeasured work 



 [ch 4: pages 100-101] (357 words)

Tips 



 [ch 4: pages 101-102] (349 words)

Piece workers (‘output’ work)
 [ch 4: page 102] (144 words)

Homeworkers



 [ch 4: page 102] (107 words)

Records 



 [ch 4: page 102] (59 words)

NMW regulatory enforcement 

 [ch 4: pages 102-103] (384 words)

Bringing an employment tribunal claim for the NMW



 [ch 4: pages 103-104] (229 words)

Employment rights avoidance devices



 [ch 4: pages 104-105] (316 words)


Pay slips and pay intervals 



 [ch 4: page 105] (303 words)

Deductions and underpayments 



 [ch 4: pages 105-108] (1,171 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions 

 [ch 4: pages 108-109] (421 words)

Guarantee pay (pay during lay-off or short-time working)

 [ch 4: pages 109-110] (683 words)

Paid medical suspension 



 [ch 4: pages 110-111] (115 words)

Paid maternity suspension 



 [ch 4: page 111] (338 words)

Breastfeeding at work 

 [ch 4: pages 111-113] (642 words)

Overtime pay 



 [ch 4: pages 113-114] (332 words)

Pensions


 [ch 4: page 114] (44 words)

Pensions auto-enrolment
 [ch 4: pages 114-116] (828 words)

New state pension 

 [ch 4: page 116] (233 words)

Public sector pension changes



 [ch 4: pages 116-117] (158 words)

Working hours and breaks 



 [ch 4: pages 117-118] (460 words)

48-hour week
 [ch 4: page 118] (110 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week 



 [ch 4: page 118] (211 words)

What is working time?
 [ch 4: pages 118-119] (368 words)

Rest breaks 



 [ch 4: pages 119-121] (729 words)

Daily and weekly rest breaks


 [ch 4: page 121] (317 words)

Travelling to and from work (mobile workers)

 [ch 4: page 122] (246 words)

Time “on call”



 [ch 4: pages 122-123] (483 words)

Nightworkers 



 [ch 4: pages 123-124] (566 words)

Nightwork and pregnancy 
 [ch 4: pages 124-125] (220 words)

Night work and young workers
 [ch 4: page 125] (46 words)

WTR record keeping 
 [ch 4: page 125] (306 words)

Holidays and holiday pay 



 [ch 4: pages 126-128] (1,105 words)

Holiday pay 

 [ch 4: pages 128-129] (965 words)

Notice of holiday 
 [ch 4: pages 130-131] (401 words)

Holidays and sickness absence 



 [ch 4: page 131] (166 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness 



 [ch 4: pages 131-132] (382 words)

Falling ill on holiday 



 [ch 4: page 132] (257 words)

Enforcement of statutory holiday rights 
 [ch 4: page 133] (111 words)

Injury to feelings 
 [ch 4: page 133] (150 words)

Bank holidays 



 [ch 4: pages 133-134] (230 words)

Sunday working 



 [ch 4: pages 134-135] (393 words)

Time off for public duties 



 [ch 4: page 135] (258 words)

Time off for study or training 



 [ch 4: pages 135-136] (374 words)

Other statutory rights to time off 



 [ch 4: page 136] (55 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation 



 [ch 5: pages 137-138] (491 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), as amended. In ...
Subscribers only

Trade union rights are human rights 



 [ch 5: pages 138-140] (935 words)

Outlawing of closed shop


 [ch 5: page 140] (56 words)

Voluntary recognition of a trade union



 [ch 5: page 140-141] (248 words)

Statutory recognition
 [ch 5: page 141] (175 words)

Who can access the statutory recognition procedure 
 [ch 5: pages 141-14] (1,259 words)

Making the application
 [ch 5: page 144] (47 words)

The bargaining unit

 [ch 5: page 144] (199 words)

Initial threshold of support

 [ch 5: pages 144-145] (200 words)

The statutory recognition ballot 



 [ch 5: pages 145-146] (466 words)

The bargaining agenda

 [ch 5: page 146] (413 words)

Derecognition 



 [ch 5: page 147] (167 words)

Union victory in Boots recognition battle



 [ch 5: pages 147-149] (873 words)

Ban on offers intended to end collective bargaining 



 [ch 5: pages 149-152] (1,266 words)

Paid time off for union duties



 [ch 5: pages 152-155] (1,299 words)

Unpaid time off for union activities



 [ch 5: page 155] (131 words)

Time off for representation duties 

 [ch 5: page 155] (83 words)

Tribunal claims about time off rights



 [ch 5: page 155] (96 words)

Regulation of public sector facility time 



 [ch 5: pages 155-157] (950 words)

Rights to information for collective bargaining 



 [ch 5: pages 158-159] (482 words)

Protection of union members from victimisation 



 [ch 5: pages 159-163] (2,049 words)

Anti-union blacklisting 



 [ch 5: pages 163-166] (1,216 words)

Interim relief 



 [ch 5: pages 166-167] (563 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives 



 [ch 5: page 167] (92 words)

Employee reps and European Works Councils



 [ch 5: pages 167-168] (200 words)

National level information and consultation 



 [ch 5: pages 168-169] (573 words)

Internal union matters


 [ch 5: pages 169-170] (503 words)

Membership audit


 [ch 5: pages 170-171] (142 words)

Certification Officer


 [ch 5: pages 171-172] (547 words)

Industrial action return

 [ch 5: page 172] (80 words)

Check-off arrangements 



 [ch 5: pages 172-173] (418 words)

Political funds



 [ch 5: pages 173-174] (676 words)

Data protection 

 [ch 5: page 175] (51 words)

Chapter 6

6. Industrial action
 [ch 6: page 176] (96 words)

This Chapter outlines the UK’s industrial action laws, which are among the most restrictive in the developed world. The balloting and notice ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike



 [ch 6: page 176] (395 words)

International criticism



 [ch 6: page 177] (178 words)

European Union law



 [ch 6: pages 177-178] (742 words)

The ‘immunities’
 [ch 6: page 179] (147 words)

Trade dispute 



 [ch 6: pages 179-181] (827 words)

Workplace reps 



 [ch 6: page 181] (147 words)

Official or unofficial action 



 [ch 6: pages 181-182] (606 words)

Strike law and the Trade Union Act 2016

 [ch 6: pages 182-183] (350 words)

Balloting 



 [ch 6: page 183] (50 words)

Ballot thresholds



 [ch 6: pages 183-185] (830 words)

The ballot process



 [ch 6: pages 186-189] (1,797 words)

Limited life of ballot mandate


 [ch 6: pages 189-190] (200 words)

Electronic strike balloting 

 [ch 6: pages 189-191] (396 words)

Requirements to notify employers 



 [ch 6: pages 191-192] (810 words)

Ban on using agency workers to replace striking workers 



 [ch 6: pages 192-193] (199 words)

Picketing 



 [ch 6: page 193] (155 words)

Picket supervisor


 [ch 6: pages 193-194] (209 words)

Letter of authorisation


 [ch 6: pages 194-195] (726 words)

Picket location 


 [ch 6: pages 195-196] (511 words)

Criminal law



 [ch 6: pages 196-197] (176 words)

Injunctions 



 [ch 6: pages 197-198] (563 words)

Dismissal 



 [ch 6: page 198] (170 words)

Detriment short of dismissal 



 [ch 6: pages 198-199] (112 words)

Deducting pay 



 [ch 6: page 199] (454 words)

Lockouts 



 [ch 6: page 200] (257 words)

State benefits for strikers 



 [ch 6: page 200] (204 words)

Annual reporting duty — industrial action 



 [ch 6: page 201] (147 words)

Chapter 7

7. Discrimination 



 [ch 7: page 202] (423 words)

Equality law in the UK is regulated by the Equality Act 2010 (EA 10). European Union law has had a far-reaching impact on the UK’s equality laws ...
Subscribers only

The protected characteristics 



 [ch 7: page 203] (156 words)

Age 



 [ch 7: pages 203-204] (285 words)

Employer’s defence justifying direct age discrimination 


 [ch 7: pages 204-205] (743 words)

Disability 
 [ch 7: pages 205-207] (665 words)

Knowledge of disability
 [ch 7: pages 207-208] (493 words)

Proving disability 



 [ch 7: page 208] (360 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered 



 [ch 7: page 209] (86 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability 



 [ch 7: pages 209-210] (548 words)

Certain conditions deemed to be a disability 



 [ch 7: page 210] (139 words)

Progressive conditions 



 [ch 7: pages 210-211] (204 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment 



 [ch 7: page 211] (273 words)

Recurring conditions 



 [ch 7: page 211] (89 words)

Perceived disability 


 [ch 7: page 212] (234 words)

Gender reassignment 



 [ch 7: pages 212-213] (546 words)

Marriage and civil partnership 



 [ch 7: pages 213-214] (471 words)

Sexual orientation 



 [ch 7: page 214] (39 words)

Race (including caste)

 [ch 7: page 215] (433 words)

Religion or belief 



 [ch 7: pages 216-217] (812 words)

Political belief 



 [ch 7: page 217] (86 words)

Pregnancy or maternity 



 [ch 7: pages 218-219] (428 words)

Sex
 [ch 7: page 219] (100 words)

Who is protected by the Equality Act 2010



 [ch 7: pages 219-220] (444 words)

Volunteers 



 [ch 7: page 220] (90 words)

Interns 



 [ch 7: pages 220-221] (147 words)

Workers outside Great Britain 



 [ch 7: page 221] (104 words)

Illegality and discrimination 



 [ch 7: page 221] (245 words)

Conduct prohibited by the Equality Act 2010



 [ch 7: page 222] (63 words)

Direct discrimination 



 [ch 7: pages 222-223] (486 words)

Associative and perceptive discrimination 



 [ch 7: page 223] (293 words)

Less favourable treatment 



 [ch 7: pages 223-224] (422 words)

The need for a comparator 



 [ch 7: pages 224-225] (201 words)

Detriment



 [ch 7: page 225] (94 words)

Direct pregnancy and maternity discrimination

 [ch 7: pages 225-227] (783 words)

Surrogacy
 [ch 7: page 227] (169 words)

IVF 
 [ch 7: page 227] (143 words)

No defence to direct discrimination 

 [ch 7: page 228] (112 words)

Exceptions

 [ch 7: pages 228-229] (311 words)

Indirect discrimination 



 [ch 7: pages 229-230] (809 words)

Defence to indirect discrimination 



 [ch 7: pages 230-231] (373 words)

Harassment 



 [ch 7: pages 231-234] (1,274 words)

Sexual harassment 



 [ch 7: pages 234-235] (672 words)

Third party harassment 



 [ch 7: page 236] (282 words)

Victimisation 



 [ch 7: pages 236-238] (669 words)

The employer’s liability 



 [ch 7: pages 238-239] (596 words)

Course of employment
 [ch 7: page 239] (142 words)

Liability for agents 
 [ch 7: pages 239-240] (394 words)

Disability discrimination

 [ch 7: page 240] (81 words)

Discrimination ‘arising from’ disability 



 [ch 7: pages 241-243] (929 words)

Reasonable adjustments 



 [ch 7: pages 243-244] (677 words)

Auxiliary aids 



 [ch 7: page 244] (71 words)

Physical features 



 [ch 7: pages 244-245] (67 words)

When is an adjustment “reasonable”?
 [ch 7: pages 245-247] (840 words)

Applying for jobs




 [ch 7: pages 247-248] (518 words)

Access to promotion and job changes 



 [ch 7: page 248] (229 words)

Voluntary positive action in recruitment and promotion 



 [ch 7: pages 248-249] (158 words)

Terms and conditions 



 [ch 7: pages 249-251] (754 words)

Challenging cuts to terms and conditions 

 [ch 7: page 251] (283 words)

Dress codes 



 [ch 7: page 252] (409 words)

Working hours and work organisation 



 [ch 7: pages 252-254] (679 words)

Language at work



 [ch 7: pages 254-255] (569 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures 



 [ch 7: pages 255-256] (515 words)

Dismissal 



 [ch 7: page 257] (117 words)

Redundancy 



 [ch 7: page 257] (69 words)

Retirement 



 [ch 7: pages 257-258] (511 words)

Equal pay 



 [ch 7: page 259] (305 words)

Sex equality clause 



 [ch 7: pages 259-260] (365 words)

What is equal work? 



 [ch 7: pages 260-261] (605 words)

Comparators 
 [ch 7: pages 261-263] (969 words)

The ‘genuine material factor’ defence 



 [ch 7: pages 263-264] (640 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay 



 [ch 7: page 265] (328 words)

Part-time work and equal pay 



 [ch 7: page 265] (165 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay 



 [ch 7: page 266] (54 words)

Length of service 



 [ch 7: page 266] (36 words)

Time limits 



 [ch 7: page 266] (240 words)

Equal pay remedies 



 [ch 7: pages 266-267] (192 words)

Gender pay gap reporting



 [ch 7: pages 267-268] (698 words)

Asking questions about pay


 [ch 7: pages 268-269] (221 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty 



 [ch 7: pages 269-270] (431 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim



 [ch 7: page 270] (139 words)

Proving discrimination — the burden of proof
 [ch 7: pages 270-271] (536 words)

Written grievance



 [ch 7: page 272] (198 words)

Asking questions about suspected discrimination 



 [ch 7: page 272] (168 words)

Time limits



 [ch 7: pages 272-273] (148 words)

Continuing discrimination 



 [ch 7: pages 273-274] (474 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim 



 [ch 7: page 274] (305 words)

Length of service 



 [ch 7: page 274] (37 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers 



 [ch 7: page 275] (77 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers 



 [ch 7: page 275] (153 words)

Power to make recommendations 



 [ch 7: page 275] (181 words)

Compensation 



 [ch 7: pages 276-277] (777 words)

Chapter 8

8. Sick pay and sickness absence 



 [ch 8: pages 278-279] (737 words)

An employer must provide employees with details of their sick pay entitlement as part of the written statement of employment particulars. This must ...
Subscribers only

Eligibility for SSP 



 [ch 8: pages 279-280] (251 words)

The Fit Note 



 [ch 8: pages 280-281] (620 words)

The Fit for Work Service 



 [ch 8: page 281] (104 words)

Occupational sick pay 



 [ch 8: pages 281-283] (946 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay 



 [ch 8: pages 283-285] (1,015 words)

Disability and sick pay 



 [ch 8: page 286] (118 words)

Phased returns and sick pay 



 [ch 8: page 286] (242 words)

Pregnancy and sick pay 



 [ch 8: pages 286-287] (149 words)

Keeping in touch with staff off sick 



 [ch 8: pages 287-288] (413 words)

Sickness absence and holiday 



 [ch 8: page 288] (28 words)

Absence management procedures 



 [ch 8: page 288] (226 words)

Equality issues 



 [ch 8: pages 288-289] (494 words)

Sickness absence dismissals and disability discrimination 



 [ch 8: pages 289-291] (782 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness absence 



 [ch 8: pages 291-292] (362 words)

Sickness absence and unfair dismissal 


 [ch 8: page 292] (41 words)

Dismissal for long-term sickness absence



 [ch 8: pages 292-296] (1,868 words)

Dismissal due to unsatisfactory attendance 



 [ch 8: pages 296-296] (1,137 words)

Sickness absence and ‘frustration of contract’ 



 [ch 8: pages 299-300] (197 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period 



 [ch 8: page 300] (77 words)

Sickness absence and strike action 



 [ch 8: page 300] (232 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection 



 [ch 8: page 301] (129 words)

The HSE management standards


 [ch 8: page 301] (182 words)

Medical reports and the law 


 [ch 8: pages 301-302] (321 words)

Pre-employment health checks 



 [ch 8: page 302] (66 words)

Chapter 9

9. Rights to time off work for working parents and carers 



 [ch 9: page 303] (397 words)

This Chapter sets out the rights available to working parents and carers. 



 ...
Subscribers only

Rights to time off for antenatal care



 [ch 9: page 303-304] (182 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments



 [ch 9: page 304] (201 words)

Time off rights for prospective adopters



 [ch 9: pages 304-305] (178 words)

Is there a right to time off for IVF appointments? 



 [ch 9: page 305] (243 words)

Enforcing rights to time off 



 [ch 9: page 305] (64 words)

Eligibility for statutory maternity leave 



 [ch 9: pages 305-306] (100 words)

Eligibility for statutory adoption leave


 [ch 9: page 306] (100 words)

Key elements of statutory maternity leave 



 [ch 9: page 306] (80 words)

Key elements of statutory adoption leave


 [ch 9: page 306] (48 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave 



 [ch 9: pages 306-307] (210 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave 



 [ch 9: page 307] (120 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date 



 [ch 9: page 307] (76 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date 



 [ch 9: page 307] (46 words)

Returning to work early 



 [ch 9: page 307] (47 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave


 [ch 9: page 308] (141 words)

Eligibility for shared parental leave (SPL)

 [ch 9: pages 308-310] (815 words)

Key elements of Shared Parental Leave



 [ch 9: page 310] (201 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave 



 [ch 9: pages 310-311] (137 words)

Can a mother change her mind?
 [ch 9: page 311] (141 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL



 [ch 9: pages 311-312] (289 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave



 [ch 9: page 312] (117 words)

Is SPL suitable?

 [ch 9: pages 312-313] (246 words)

Rights during leave



 [ch 9: page 313] (249 words)

Contact during leave



 [ch 9: pages 313-314] (145 words)

Keeping in Touch (KIT and SPLIT) days 



 [ch 9: page 314] (285 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave 



 [ch 9: pages 314-315] (318 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave



 [ch 9: page 315] (236 words)

Returning to work 



 [ch 9: pages 316-317] (555 words)

Statutory Maternity Pay



 [ch 9: page 317] (319 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) 



 [ch 9: pages 317-318] (169 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay 



 [ch 9: page 318] (114 words)

Statutory Paternity Pay 



 [ch 9: page 318] (41 words)

Statutory Shared Parental Pay 



 [ch 9: pages 318-319] (188 words)

Contractual maternity, shared parental or adoption pay 



 [ch 9: pages 319-340] (654 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay 



 [ch 9: pages 320-321] (117 words)

Right to paid maternity suspension 



 [ch 9: page 321] (109 words)

Unpaid parental leave 



 [ch 9: pages 321-322] (404 words)

Leave for family emergencies 



 [ch 9: pages 322-323] (460 words)

New right to statutory bereavement leave from 2020 
 [ch 9: page 323] (87 words)

The right to request flexible working 



 [ch 9: pages 323-324] (374 words)

The employee’s request



 [ch 9: page 324] (279 words)

The employer’s response 



 [ch 9: page 324] (246 words)

The decision



 [ch 9: pages 325-328] (1,200 words)

New EU Directive on work-life balance 
 [ch 9: page 328] (226 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 329] (205 words)

To bring a claim for unfair dismissal you must: 



 ...
Subscribers only

What is a dismissal? 



 [ch 10: pages 329-330] (539 words)

Resignation 



 [ch 10: pages 330-331] (500 words)

Notice


 [ch 10: page 332] (80 words)

When employers give notice



 [ch 10: page 332] (342 words)

Payment in lieu of notice 



 [ch 10: page 333] (239 words)

When employees give notice



 [ch 10: pages 333-334] (311 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence 



 [ch 10: page 334] (73 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract 



 [ch 10: page 334] (81 words)

Constructive dismissal 



 [ch 10: page 334] (137 words)

Fundamental contract breach



 [ch 10: pages 334-335] (376 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach



 [ch 10: page 336] (123 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach



 [ch 10: pages 336-337] (796 words)

Grievance 



 [ch 10: pages 337-338] (120 words)

The Acas Code on grievance procedures


 [ch 10: page 338] (323 words)

Last straw cases



 [ch 10: page 339] (217 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks



 [ch 10: pages 339-340] (440 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair



 [ch 10: page 340-341] (225 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal 



 [ch 10: page 341] (120 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal 



 [ch 10: page 341] (131 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable?

 [ch 10: page 341] (98 words)

The band of reasonable responses



 [ch 10: page 342] (293 words)

The importance of consistency



 [ch 10: pages 342-343] (336 words)

Capability dismissals

 [ch 10: pages 343-344] (335 words)

Conduct dismissals

 [ch 10: pages 344-345] (564 words)

Gross misconduct 



 [ch 10: pages 345-346] (367 words)

Disciplinary procedures 



 [ch 10: pages 346-349] (1,232 words)

Warnings 



 [ch 10: pages 349-350] (884 words)

Appeals



 [ch 10: pages 351-352] (530 words)

Redundancy 



 [ch 10: page 352] (98 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction 



 [ch 10: page 352] (73 words)

Loss of driving licence



 [ch 10: page 352] (80 words)

Immigration status 



 [ch 10: pages 352-353] (285 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason 



 [ch 10: page 353] (237 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree changes to terms and conditions 



 [ch 10: pages 353-355] (750 words)

Dismissals due to breakdown in trust and confidence 



 [ch 10: page 355] (135 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure 



 [ch 10: pages 355-356] (131 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant



 [ch 10: page 356] (72 words)

Dismissal for manifesting offensive political opinions 



 [ch 10: page 356] (138 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder



 [ch 10: page 356] (118 words)

Dismissal for ending and non-renewal of a fixed-term contract



 [ch 10: pages 356-357] (158 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence



 [ch 10: page 357] (107 words)

Retirement not a fair reason for dismissal 



 [ch 10: page 357] (103 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal 


 [ch 10: page 357] (81 words)

Dismissal and pregnancy and other parental rights 



 [ch 10: pages 357-358] (489 words)

Dismissals and business transfers 



 [ch 10: page 359] (83 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership 



 [ch 10: pages 359-360] (407 words)

Dismissals and union recognition 



 [ch 10: page 360] (28 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting 



 [ch 10: page 360] (36 words)

Dismissals and representation rights 



 [ch 10: page 360] (36 words)

Dismissal and industrial action 



 [ch 10: pages 360-361] (491 words)

Dismissal for enforcing a statutory right 



 [ch 10: page 361] (133 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions 



 [ch 10: pages 361-362] (48 words)

Dismissal of part-time, fixed-term or employed agency workers 



 [ch 10: page 362] (37 words)

Dismissal of zero hours contract workers



 [ch 10: page 362] (43 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety 



 [ch 10: page 362] (299 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays 



 [ch 10: page 363] (33 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees 



 [ch 10: page 363] (64 words)

Pension auto-enrolment 

 [ch 10: page 363] (38 words)

National Minimum Wage and working time rights 



 [ch 10: page 363] (38 words)

Dismissal for whistleblowing 



 [ch 10: page 363] (33 words)

The effective date of termination 



 [ch 10: pages 363-365] (819 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim 



 [ch 10: pages 365-366] (760 words)

Continuous employment 



 [ch 10: pages 366-367] (326 words)

The statutory rules on service continuity



 [ch 10: pages 367-369] (793 words)

Illegality and unfair dismissal rights 



 [ch 10: pages 369-370] (254 words)

Remedies: reinstatement or re-engagement



 [ch 10: pages 370-371] (532 words)

Compensation 



 [ch 10: page 371] (51 words)

The basic award 



 [ch 10: pages 371-372] (330 words)

The compensatory award 



 [ch 10: page 372] (182 words)

What can be claimed 



 [ch 10: pages 372-373] (352 words)

Mitigating losses 



 [ch 10: pages 373-374] (581 words)

Contributory fault 



 [ch 10: pages 374-375] (246 words)

Other deductions and adjustments 



 [ch 10: page 375] (255 words)

The statutory cap 



 [ch 10: pages 375-376] (182 words)

The additional award 



 [ch 10: page 376] (67 words)

Interest and tax 



 [ch 10: page 376] (131 words)

Insolvency 



 [ch 10: pages 376-377] (210 words)

Wrongful dismissal 



 [ch 10: page 377] (198 words)

The statutory right to be accompanied 



 [ch 10: pages 377-379] (975 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy


 [ch 11: pages 380-382] (1,054 words)

Not every situation in which employees lose their job through no fault of their own is covered by redundancy law and confusingly, “redundancy” ...
Subscribers only

Relocation redundancy 



 [ch 11: pages 382-383] (642 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties 



 [ch 11: pages 383-384] (616 words)

Has there been a redundancy dismissal? 



 [ch 11: page 385] (119 words)

Voluntary redundancy 



 [ch 11: pages 385-386] (498 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 



 [ch 11: pages 386-387] (427 words)

Notice 



 [ch 11: pages 387-388] (308 words)

Collective redundancy consultation 



 [ch 11: pages 388-389] (563 words)

The duty to provide information to reps 



 [ch 11: pages 389-390] (214 words)

Collective consultation, data protection and confidentiality 



 [ch 11: page 390] (151 words)

When must consultation begin? 



 [ch 11: pages 390-391] (600 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation 



 [ch 11: pages 391-393] (634 words)

When does consultation end? 



 [ch 11: page 393] (90 words)

Calculating the number of employees



 [ch 11: page 393] (174 words)

Consultation over changes to terms and conditions 



 [ch 11: page 394] (175 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 



 [ch 11: page 394] (206 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation 



 [ch 11: page 394] (76 words)

Who should be consulted 



 [ch 11: pages 395-396] (664 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training 



 [ch 11: page 396] (116 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BEIS 



 [ch 11: pages 396-397] (98 words)

Protective award for failure to consult collectively 



 [ch 11: page 397] (189 words)

Calculating the protective award 



 [ch 11: pages 397-398] (315 words)

The ‘special circumstances’ defence 



 [ch 11: pages 398-399] (712 words)

UK employees based overseas
 [ch 11: page 399] (126 words)

Selection for redundancy 



 [ch 11: page 400] (307 words)

Selection pool 



 [ch 11: pages 400-401] (259 words)

Selection criteria and methods 



 [ch 11: page 401] (253 words)

Disability 



 [ch 11: pages 402-403] (570 words)

Age 



 [ch 11: pages 403-404] (306 words)

Trade union membership and activities 



 [ch 11: page 404] (289 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination 



 [ch 11: pages 404-406] (613 words)

Part-time and fixed-term employees


 [ch 11: page 406] (274 words)

Apprentices 



 [ch 11: pages 406-407] (265 words)

Individual redundancy consultation 



 [ch 11: pages 407-409] (702 words)

Alternative work 



 [ch 11: pages 409-411] (948 words)

The statutory trial period 



 [ch 11: page 411] (223 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available vacancy 



 [ch 11: pages 411-414] (1,228 words)

Looking for work 



 [ch 11: page 414] (109 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy 



 [ch 11: pages 415-416] (565 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals 



 [ch 11: pages 416-417] (442 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights 



 [ch 11: page 417] (113 words)

Statutory redundancy pay 



 [ch 11: page 418] (441 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay 



 [ch 11: page 419] (20 words)

Proving a contractual right to redundancy pay


 [ch 11: pages 419-421] (945 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination 



 [ch 11: page 421] (146 words)

Public sector redundancy pay



 [ch 11: pages 421-422] (208 words)

‘Claw-back’ of exit payments



 [ch 11: page 422] (108 words)

Cap on public sector exit payments



 [ch 11: page 422] (194 words)

Redundancy payments and tax 



 [ch 11: pages 422-423] (75 words)

Redundancy pay linked to lay-off and short time working 



 [ch 11: pages 423-424] (458 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency 



 [ch 11: pages 424-425] (576 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE 



 [ch 12: page 426] (410 words)

Business transfers and outsourcing, and their effect on the employment relationship, are regulated by the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of ...
Subscribers only

Some key facts about TUPE 



 [ch 12: pages 427-428] (471 words)

Relevant transfers



 [ch 12: page 428] (172 words)

Business transfers 



 [ch 12: pages 428-430] (613 words)

Service provision changes 



 [ch 12: page 430] (290 words)

No change in commissioning client


 [ch 12: pages 430-431] (259 words)

Similarity of activities


 (508 words)

Organised grouping of employees

 [ch 12: pages 432-433] (561 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change 

 [ch 12: page 434] (72 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration 

 [ch 12: pages 434-435] (488 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods 

 [ch 12: page 435] (191 words)

Transfers to more than one transferee

 [ch 12: pages 435-436] (226 words)

Service fragmentation

 [ch 12: page 436-437] (549 words)

Who transfers?


 [ch 12: pages 437-439] (1,145 words)

The transfer date
 [ch 12: page 440] (125 words)

Objecting to a transfer 



 [ch 12: page 440] (152 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change 



 [ch 12: pages 440-441] (403 words)

Workforce reorganisation before a transfer 



 [ch 12: pages 441-443] (893 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE 



 [ch 12: pages 443-444] (249 words)

Who must be informed and consulted 



 [ch 12: pages 444-445] (619 words)

What information must be provided to reps? 



 [ch 12: pages 445-446] (272 words)

Timescale for TUPE consultation 



 [ch 12: page 446] (300 words)

Enforcement — protective award



 [ch 12: pages 446-447] (260 words)

The special circumstances defence 



 [ch 12: page 447] (135 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies 



 [ch 12: pages 447-449] (666 words)

Employee liability information 



 [ch 12: page 449] (135 words)

Transfers within public administration 



 [ch 12: pages 449-450] (500 words)

Return of the two-tier workforce 



 [ch 12: pages 450-451] (299 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions 



 [ch 12: pages 451-452] (488 words)

TUPE and pensions 



 [ch 12: pages 452-453] (279 words)

Early retirement benefits



 [ch 12: page 453] (194 words)

Occupational pensions

 [ch 12: pages 453-454] (355 words)

Fair Deal for Pensions — public service outsourcing



 [ch 12: pages 454-455] (470 words)

Collective agreements and union recognition 



 [ch 12: page 455] (146 words)

TUPE and contract change

 [ch 12: page 456] (130 words)

Changes to individual contract terms


 [ch 12: page 456] (309 words)

Economic, technical or organisational reason 



 [ch 12: pages 456-458] (569 words)

Changes to collective terms 



 [ch 12: page 458] (365 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining 



 [ch 12: pages 459-460] (585 words)

Contract changes unconnected to the transfer 



 [ch 12: page 460] (190 words)

How long are contract terms protected by TUPE? 



 [ch 12: pages 460-461] (138 words)

TUPE protection against unfair dismissal 



 [ch 12: pages 461-463] (919 words)

TUPE and insolvency 



 [ch 12: page 463] (241 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency 



 [ch 12: pages 463-464] (193 words)

Winding up the business 



 [ch 12: page 464] (94 words)

Chapter 13

13. Whistleblowing


 [ch 13: page 465] (131 words)

Under the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (PIDA), employees and workers who disclose information about alleged wrongdoing at work ...
Subscribers only

Who is protected by the law?
 [ch 13: pages 465-466] (398 words)

What disclosures are protected?
 [ch 13: page 466] (203 words)

Who should disclosures be made to?

 [ch 13: pages 466-467] (126 words)

The public interest test



 [ch 13: pages 467-468] (413 words)

Dismissal
 [ch 13: page 468] (106 words)

Detriment 
 [ch 13: pages 468-469] (742 words)

New EU Whistleblowing Directive 
 [ch 13: page 470] (131 words)

Chapter 14

14. Bringing a tribunal claim



 [ch 14: page 471] (31 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing an employment tribunal claim and the main stages of the tribunal process. 



 ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim



 [ch 14: page 471] (256 words)

Acas Early Conciliation 



 [ch 14: pages 471-473] (1,039 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas Early Conciliation 



 [ch 14: pages 473-474] (455 words)

Abolition of employment tribunal fees



 [ch 14: pages 474-475] (282 words)

ET1 Claim Form 



 [ch 14: pages 475-476] (395 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim Form 



 [ch 14: page 476] (220 words)

Time limits 



 [ch 14: pages 476-477] (255 words)

The overriding objective 

 [ch 14: page 477] (74 words)

Initial consideration 



 [ch 14: page 477] (84 words)

Case management orders 



 [ch 14: pages 477-478] (163 words)

Making changes (amendments) to the claim
 [ch 14: page 478] (106 words)

Judicial Assessment


 [ch 14: page 478] (93 words)

Schedule of loss



 [ch 14: page 478] (117 words)

Chronology



 [ch 14: page 478] (57 words)

Preliminary hearings 



 [ch 14: page 479] (181 words)

Deposit order


 [ch 14: page 479] (208 words)

Striking out


 [ch 14: pages 479-480] (152 words)

Default judgment 

 [ch 14: page 480] (43 words)

Unless Orders



 [ch 14: page 480] (86 words)

Exchange of documents 



 [ch 14: pages 480-481] (663 words)

Fixing a hearing date 



 [ch 14: page 481] (62 words)

Postponement requests 



 [ch 14: page 482] (212 words)

Witness statements



 [ch 14: page 482] (272 words)

The tribunal panel



 [ch 14: page 483] (124 words)

The main hearing 



 [ch 14: page 483] (320 words)

Judgment
 [ch 14: page 484] (150 words)

Costs orders 



 [ch 14: pages 484-485] (658 words)

Enforcing tribunal awards and costs orders 



 [ch 14: page 486] (238 words)

Financial penalties for ‘aggravated breach’ 



 [ch 14: page 486] (100 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal 



 [ch 14: pages 486-487] (240 words)

Sources of legal advice and support
 [ch 14: page 487] (71 words)

Employees outside Great Britain



 [ch 14: page 487] (98 words)

Settling a claim



 [ch 14: pages 487-489] (653 words)

Without prejudice discussions



 [ch 14: page 489] (172 words)

‘Protected conversations’
 

 [ch 14: pages 489-490] (618 words)

Improper behaviour 



 [ch 14: page 491] (189 words)

Judicial mediation
 [ch 14: page 491] (112 words)

In-work mediation



 [ch 14: page 491] (83 words)

Chapter 15

15. Data protection, surveillance and monitoring 



 [ch 15: page 492] (378 words)

Data protection law in the UK is governed by the EU General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR) and by national law, the Data Protection Act 2018. 
 ...
Subscribers only

The General Data Protection Regulation (GDPR)
 [ch 15: pages 492-497] (1,819 words)

Casework


 [ch 15: page 497] (166 words)

Data subject access requests 


 [ch 15: pages 497-498] (224 words)

Covert monitoring at work


 [ch 15: pages 498-499] (565 words)

Workplace emails

 [ch 15: page 499] (222 words)

Further information

Further information [pages 500-501] (777 words)

Copies of relevant statutes and regulations are available online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is published on the ...
Subscribers only