LRD Booklets May 2015

Law at Work 2015

Introduction

Introduction [pages 15-22] (2,998 words)

The 2015 edition of Law at Work, in its 27th year of publication, is being released against the backdrop of the election of a majority Conservative ...
Subscribers only

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system [pages 24-26] (1,046 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

The employment tribunal system [ch 1: pages 26-28] (846 words)

UNISON judicial challenge to tribunal fees [ch 1: page 28] (171 words)

Personal injury claims [ch 1: pages 28-29] (267 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes [ch 1: page 29] (124 words)

Criminal law [ch 1: page 29] (44 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker [ch 2: page 30] (80 words)

The employment status laws determine what level and range of employment rights (if any) an individual can access. Reps need a basic understanding of ...
Subscribers only

Employment status [ch 2: pages 30-32] (620 words)

Employee, worker or self-employed? [ch 2: pages 32-33] (270 words)

Mutuality of obligation [ch 2: page 33] (295 words)

Personal service [ch 2: pages 33-35] (623 words)

Degree of control [ch 2: pages 35-36] (441 words)

Sham employment documentation [ch 2: pages 36-37] (409 words)

Self-employment [ch 2: pages 37-38] (458 words)

The Gangmasters’ Licensing Authority [ch 2: page 38] (153 words)

The Construction Industry Scheme (CIS) and false self-employment [ch 2: page 38] (94 words)

Changes to the law to combat false self-employment [ch 2: pages 38-39] (238 words)

Umbrella companies [ch 2: pages 39-40] (302 words)

Personal service companies [ch 2: page 40] (158 words)

Zero hours contract workers [ch 2: pages 40-42] (771 words)

Plan to ban exclusivity clauses [ch 2: page 42] (242 words)

Homeworkers [ch 2: pages 42-43] (108 words)

Volunteers [ch 2: page 43] (148 words)

Interns [ch 2: page 43] (188 words)

Young workers [ch 2: pages 43-44] (199 words)

Apprentices [ch 2: pages 44-45] (509 words)

Children [ch 2: pages 45-46] (198 words)

Part-time workers [ch 2: pages 46-48] (1,023 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees [ch 2: pages 48-50] (1,046 words)

Agency workers [ch 2: pages 50-51] (132 words)

Rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010 (384 words)

Improved pregnancy rights [ch 2: page 52] (161 words)

Who is protected by the AWRs? [ch 2: pages 52-53] (340 words)

The Swedish derogation [ch 2: pages 53-54] (378 words)

Other rights for agency workers [ch 2: pages 54-55] (236 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy [ch 2: page 55] (230 words)

Crown employees [ch 2: page 55] (58 words)

Working outside the UK [ch 2: pages 55-56] (227 words)

Employee Shareholders [ch 2: pages 56-57] (342 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract [ch 3: pages 58-59] (579 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work for the first time are likely to have references from ...
Subscribers only

What if an employer checks out a job applicant’s digital footprint? [ch 3: page 59] (337 words)

Checking the right to work in the UK [ch 3: page 60] (362 words)

Ban on pre-employment health checks [ch 3: pages 60-61] (228 words)

Criminal convictions [ch 3: pages 61-62] (351 words)

Jobs that require a DBS check [ch 3: pages 62-63] (566 words)

Ban on using subject access requests to disclose convictions [ch 3: page 63] (111 words)

Ban on questions about pension opt-out during recruitment [ch 3: page 63] (72 words)

The employment contract [ch 3: page 64] (234 words)

Written statement of employment particulars [ch 3: pages 64-66] (924 words)

Terms of the contract [ch 3: page 66] (49 words)

Express terms [ch 3: pages 66-68] (720 words)

Implied terms [ch 3: pages 68-72] (1,721 words)

Works rules and collective agreements [ch 3: pages 72-73] (548 words)

Is the collective term “apt” for incorporation? [ch 3: pages 73-75] (1,043 words)

Illegal contract terms [ch 3: pages 75-76] (271 words)

Restrictive covenants [ch 3: pages 76-77] (242 words)

Contract changes [ch 3: page 77] (83 words)

What if the employer gives notice to end the contract and imposes new terms? [ch 3: page 77] (130 words)

Express or implied agreement to change [ch 3: pages 77-80] (1,457 words)

Breach of contract [ch 3: pages 80-81] (364 words)

Bringing a claim [ch 3: pages 81-82] (383 words)

Other remedies [ch 3: page 82] (72 words)

Claims and counter-claims by an employer for contract breach [ch 3: page 82] (46 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions [ch 4: page 83] (208 words)

Under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, workers have the right to a minimum wage, currently set at £6.50 an hour for those aged 21 or over (£6.70 ...
Subscribers only

Who is eligible for the National Minimum Wage [ch 4: pages 83-84] (349 words)

Excluded workers [ch 4: page 84] (143 words)

NMW avoidance devices [ch 4: pages 84-85] (84 words)

Agricultural Wages [ch 4: page 85] (235 words)

How the National Minimum Wage is calculated [ch 4: pages 85-86] (574 words)

Time spent sleeping [ch 4: page 87] (480 words)

Employers who provide accommodation for use when staff are not working [ch 4: page 88] (155 words)

Travelling between assignments and the NMW [ch 4: page 88] (216 words)

The NMW and time on standby [ch 4: page 89] (100 words)

The NMW is based on basic pay [ch 4: page 89] (142 words)

Tips [ch 4: page 89] (40 words)

Piece workers [ch 4: page 89] (56 words)

Bringing a claim for the NMW [ch 4: pages 89-90] (417 words)

HMRC penalties for employers who fail to pay NMW [ch 4: page 90] (202 words)

Draft regulations consolidating the NMW regulations [ch 4: page 90] (47 words)

Pay slips and pay intervals [ch 4: page 91] (183 words)

Deductions and underpayments [ch 4: pages 91-94] (1,560 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions [ch 4: pages 94-95] (518 words)

Guarantee pay [ch 4: pages 95-97] (756 words)

Medical suspension pay [ch 4: page 97] (168 words)

Maternity suspension [ch 4: page 98] (96 words)

Overtime pay [ch 4: page 98] (238 words)

Pensions — auto-enrolment [ch 4: pages 98-99] (284 words)

Working hours and breaks [ch 4: pages 99-100] (311 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week [ch 4: page 100] (201 words)

Rest breaks [ch 4: pages 100-102] (967 words)

Time on-call [ch 4: pages 102-103] (553 words)

Night workers [ch 4: page 103] (49 words)

Holidays and holiday pay [ch 4: pages 103-107] (1,683 words)

Holidays and sickness absence [ch 4: page 107] (185 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness absence [ch 4: page 108] (386 words)

Falling ill when on holiday [ch 4: pages 108-109] (249 words)

Bank holidays [ch 4: page 109] (283 words)

Time off for public duties [ch 4: page 110] (267 words)

Time off for study or training [ch 4: pages 110-111] (438 words)

Other statutory rights to time off [ch 4: page 111] (57 words)

More information [ch 4: page 111] (55 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation [ch 5: pages 112-113] (570 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), which was amended ...
Subscribers only

The right to engage in collective bargaining [ch 5: page 113-114] (430 words)

The right to strike [ch 5: page 114] (97 words)

Voluntary recognition [ch 5: page 114] (224 words)

The statutory recognition procedure [ch 5: pages 115-117] (1,231 words)

Representativity [ch 5: pages 117-118] (120 words)

Is it a trade union at all? [ch 5: page 118] (205 words)

The statutory recognition ballot [ch 5: pages 118-120] (925 words)

Derecognition [ch 5: pages 120-121] (345 words)

Territorial scope [ch 5: page 121] (120 words)

Protection of union members [ch 5: page 121] (104 words)

Trade union victimisation [ch 5: pages 121-124] (1,344 words)

Anti-union blacklists [ch 5: pages 125-127] (962 words)

Interim relief [ch 5: pages 127-129] (648 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives [ch 5: page 129] (92 words)

Right to time off [ch 5: pages 129-131] (875 words)

Rights to information [ch 5: pages 131-132] (317 words)

Working time [ch 5: page 132] (197 words)

Employee reps and European Works Councils [ch 5: page 132] (212 words)

National level information and consultation [ch 5: page 133] (198 words)

Internal union matters [ch 5: pages 133-135] (743 words)

Check-off arrangements [ch 5: pages 135-136] (319 words)

Political funds [ch 5: page 136] (192 words)

Government attacks on trade union rights and facility arrangements [ch 5: page 136] (251 words)

More information [ch 5: page 137] (88 words)

Chapter 6

6. Discrimination [ch 6: page 138] (256 words)

The Equality Act 2010 (EA 10) became law on 8 April 2010. The EA 10 did not make many significant changes to existing equality laws, but it helpfully ...
Subscribers only

Tribunal fees [ch 6: page 138] (158 words)

Acas Early Conciliation [ch 6: page 139] (66 words)

The protected characteristics [ch 6: page139 ] (152 words)

Age [ch 6: pages 139-140] (280 words)

Disability [ch 6: page 140] (178 words)

What are normal day-to-day activities? [ch 6: pages 141-142] (167 words)

Proving the existence of disability [ch 6: page 141] (390 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered [ch 6: page 142] (84 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability [ch 6: pages 142-143] (655 words)

Certain conditions are deemed a disability [ch 6: page 143] (71 words)

Progressive conditions [ch 6: pages 143-144] (64 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment [ch 6: page 144] (124 words)

Recurring conditions [ch 6: page 144] (104 words)

Can a prospective employer ask about disability on the job application form? [ch 6: page 144] (41 words)

What if the employer does not know about the disability? [ch 6: pages 144-145] (615 words)

Is there an obligation to tell the employer about the disability? [ch 6: page 146] (110 words)

Gender reassignment [ch 6: page 146] (341 words)

Marriage and civil partnership [ch 6: page 147] (272 words)

Sexual orientation [ch 6: page 147] (40 words)

Race [ch 6: pages 147-148] (269 words)

Caste [ch 6: page 148] (131 words)

Religion or belief [ch 6: pages 148-149] (367 words)

Political belief [ch 6: page 149] (228 words)

Pregnancy or maternity [ch 6: pages 150-151] (503 words)

Surrogacy [ch 6: page 151] (65 words)

IVF [ch 6: page 151] (109 words)

Sex or gender [ch 6: page 151] (25 words)

Who is protected by the Equality Act 2010 [ch 6: pages 151-153] (596 words)

Volunteers [ch 6: page 153] (135 words)

Interns [ch 6: pages 153-154] (121 words)

Workers outside Great Britain [ch 6: page 154] (72 words)

Seafarers and discrimination [ch 6: page 154] (70 words)

Illegal workers and discrimination [ch 6: pages 154-155] (299 words)

What conduct is prohibited by the Equality Act 2010? [ch 6: page 155] (57 words)

Direct discrimination [ch 6: page 155] (308 words)

What is less favourable treatment? [ch 6: pages 155-156] (427 words)

The need for a comparator [ch 6: pages 156-157] (316 words)

Associative discrimination and harassment [ch 6: page 157] (131 words)

Perception discrimination and harassment [ch 6: pages 157-158] (101 words)

Is there a defence to direct discrimination? [ch 6: pages 158-159] (497 words)

Are there any exceptions to the definition of direct discrimination? [ch 6: page 159] (269 words)

Indirect discrimination [ch 6: pages 160-161] (542 words)

What is a provision, criterion or practice (PCP)? [ch 6: page 161] (272 words)

Must you show disadvantage to a particular group of workers apart from just you? [ch 6: page 161] (87 words)

Does it matter that you could have complied with the PCP if you wanted to? [ch 6: page 162] (80 words)

Must you prove genuine disadvantage to you as a result of the PCP? [ch 6: page 162] (78 words)

Must there be a comparator group? [ch 6: page 162] (91 words)

Is there a defence to a claim for indirect discrimination? [ch 6: pages 162-163] (444 words)

Religious belief in the workplace [ch 6: pages 163-165] (857 words)

Working hours and religious observance [ch 6: page 165] (282 words)

Discrimination arising from disability [ch 6: pages 165-166] (324 words)

The duty to make reasonable adjustments for disabled workers [ch 6: pages 166-167] (349 words)

Auxiliary aids [ch 6: page 167] (72 words)

Physical features [ch 6: pages 167-168] (85 words)

Substantial disadvantage [ch 6: page 168] (22 words)

Is the adjustment reasonable? [ch 6: pages 168-169] (571 words)

What if the employer does not know the worker is disabled? [ch 6: page 169] (79 words)

Harassment [ch 6: page 169] (41 words)

Defining harassment [ch 6: pages 169-170] (80 words)

Conduct capable of being harassment under the EA 10 [ch 6: pages 170-171] (664 words)

Sexual harassment [ch 6: page 171] (254 words)

Associative harassment [ch 6: page 172] (43 words)

Perception harassment [ch 6: page 172] (144 words)

Third party harassment [ch 6: pages 172-173] (309 words)

The employer’s duty to act [ch 6: page ] (22 words)

Suspension [ch 6: page ] (56 words)

Other laws relevant to a claim for workplace harassment [ch 6: page 173] (131 words)

Victimisation [ch 6: pages 174-175] (538 words)

The employer’s liability for discrimination and harassment [ch 6: page 175] (143 words)

The employer’s ‘reasonable steps’ defence [ch 6: pages 175-176] (275 words)

Harassment or discrimination outside work [ch 6: page 176] (79 words)

Liability of employer for acts of its agents [ch 6: page 176] (159 words)

Practical applications of discrimination law in the workplace [ch 6: pages 176-177] (344 words)

Access to promotion and job changes [ch 6: pages 177-178] (334 words)

Voluntary positive action in recruitment and promotion [ch 6: page 178] (238 words)

Terms and conditions [ch 6: page 179] (210 words)

Resisting discriminatory changes to terms and conditions [ch 6: pages 179-180] (204 words)

Dress codes [ch 6: page 180] (140 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures [ch 6: pages 180-181] (464 words)

Termination of employment [ch 6: pages 181-182] (172 words)

Redundancy [ch 6: page 182] (26 words)

Retirement [ch 6: pages 182-184] (903 words)

Equal pay [ch 6: page 184] (318 words)

Sex equality clause [ch 6: page 185] (97 words)

What terms are covered by the sex equality clause? [ch 6: page 185] (289 words)

What is equal work? [ch 6: page ] (299 words)

Who can an employee compare herself with? [ch 6: pages 186-187] (548 words)

What does “in the same employment” mean? [ch 6: pages 187-188] (234 words)

The employer’s genuine material factor defence [ch 6: page 188] (352 words)

The material factor must be genuine [ch 6: page 189] (295 words)

The employer’s reason must not be “tainted by sex” [ch 6: page ] (102 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay [ch 6: pages 189-190] (495 words)

Part-time work and equal pay [ch 6: pages 190-191] (173 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay [ch 6: page 191] (52 words)

Length of service [ch 6: page 191] (32 words)

Time limits [ch 6: page 191] (223 words)

What can be claimed? [ch 6: page 192] (45 words)

Pay transparency and equal pay audits [ch 6: pages 192-193] (608 words)

Abolition of the statutory equal pay questionnaire [ch 6: pages 193-194] (196 words)

Pay secrecy and information on the pay gap [ch 6: page 194] (114 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty [ch 6: pages 194-196] (574 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim [ch 6: page 196] (105 words)

Written grievance [ch 6: page 196] (207 words)

Asking an employer questions about suspected discrimination [ch 6: pages 196-197] (248 words)

Proving discrimination — the burden of proof [ch 6: pages 197-198] (491 words)

Time limits [ch 6: page 198] (107 words)

Continuing discrimination [ch 6: pages 198-199] (531 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim [ch 6: page 200] (184 words)

Length of service [ch 6: page 200] (27 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers [ch 6: page 200] (40 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers [ch 6: page 200] (30 words)

Power to make recommendations [ch 6: pages 200-201] (131 words)

Planned repeal of the power to make wider recommendations [ch 6: page 201] (165 words)

Compensation [ch 6: pages 201-203] (846 words)

More information [ch 6: page 203] (80 words)

Chapter 7

7. Sick pay and sickness absence [ch 7: page 204] (365 words)

An employer must provide employees with details of their sick pay entitlement as part of the written statement of employment particulars within two ...
Subscribers only

Eligibility for SSP [ch 7: pages 204-205] (120 words)

Rules about notifying the employer [ch 7: page 205] (83 words)

Claiming SSP [ch 7: page 205] (47 words)

The Fit Note [ch 7: page 205] (214 words)

The purpose of the Fit Note [ch 7: pages 205-206] (501 words)

The Fit for Work Service [ch 7: page 207] (411 words)

Occupational sick pay [ch 7: pages 207-209] (737 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay [ch 7: pages 209-210] (651 words)

Phased returns and sick pay [ch 7: page 211] (124 words)

Occupational sick pay and pregnancy [ch 7: page 211] (72 words)

Sickness absence and holiday [ch 7: page 211] (27 words)

Keeping in touch with absent staff while off sick [ch 7: page 211] (207 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness [ch 7: page 212] (221 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period [ch 7: page 212] (107 words)

Dismissal due to sickness absence [ch 7: page 212] (37 words)

Dismissal due to long-term sickness absence [ch 7: pages 212-215] (1,160 words)

Dismissal due to short term absences — a poor attendance record [ch 7: pages 216-217] (703 words)

Absence management procedures [ch 7: pages 217-218] (439 words)

Bonuses to reward good attendance [ch 7: page 218] (218 words)

The impact of disability on sickness absence [ch 7: pages 219-221] (926 words)

Frustration of contract [ch 7: page 221] (174 words)

Sickness absence and strike action [ch 7: page 222] (221 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection [ch 7: page 222] (94 words)

Medical reports [ch 7: pages 222-223] (195 words)

Pre-employment health checks [ch 7: page 223] (62 words)

Surveillance of employees on sick leave [ch 7: pages 223-224] (401 words)

More information [ch 7: page 224] (88 words)

Chapter 8

8. Rights to time off work for working parents and carers [ch 8: page 225] (106 words)

This Chapter sets out the rights available to working parents and carers. These include new rights to Shared Parental Leave. The new rights only ...
Subscribers only

Minimum statutory rights to leave [ch 8: page 225] (128 words)

Protection from detriment or dismissal [ch 8: page 225] (157 words)

Rights to time off for ante-natal care [ch 8: page 226] (199 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments [ch 8: page 226] (220 words)

New rights to time off for prospective adoptees [ch 8: page 227] (181 words)

Is there a right to time off for IVF appointments? [ch 8: page 227] (195 words)

Enforcing rights to time off for antenatal care and adoption [ch 8: pages 227-228] (135 words)

Maternity and Adoption Leave [ch 8: pages 228-229] (296 words)

Who is eligible for statutory maternity leave [ch 8: page 229] (100 words)

The key elements of statutory maternity leave [ch 8: page 229] (83 words)

The key elements of statutory adoption leave [ch 8: page 229] (45 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave [ch 8: pages 229-230] (220 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave [ch 8: page 230] (117 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date [ch 8: page 230] (77 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date [ch 8: page 230] (45 words)

Returning to work early [ch 8: page 230] (43 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave [ch 8: pages 230-231] (138 words)

Who is eligible for shared parental leave (SPL) [ch 8: pages 231-232] (388 words)

The key elements of Shared Parental Leave [ch 8: page 232] (168 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave [ch 8: page 232] (141 words)

Can a mother change her mind? [ch 8: page 232] (149 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL [ch 8: pages 233-234] (294 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave [ch 8: page 234] (119 words)

Is SPL suitable? [ch 8: pages 234-235] (252 words)

Rights during statutory maternity, adoption and shared parental leave [ch 8: page 235] (127 words)

Pension contributions [ch 8: page 235] (81 words)

Contact between employer and employee during leave [ch 8: page 235] (171 words)

Keeping in touch (KIT) days [ch 8: page 236] (239 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave [ch 8: page 236] (107 words)

Who qualifies for OPL [ch 8: page 236] (97 words)

Notifying intention to claim OPL [ch 8: page 237] (106 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave [ch 8: page 237] (269 words)

Returning to work [ch 8: pages 237-238] (619 words)

Statutory rights to pay while on leave [ch 8: page 239] (107 words)

How much is SMP? [ch 8: page 239] (244 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) [ch 8: pages 239-240] (114 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay [ch 8: page 240] (78 words)

How much is statutory adoption pay (SAP)? [ch 8: page 240] (90 words)

Statutory paternity pay [ch 8: page 240] (39 words)

Statutory shared parental pay [ch 8: pages 240-241] (187 words)

Contractual maternity or adoption pay [ch 8: page 241] (106 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay [ch 8: page 241] (118 words)

Right to medical suspension — pregnancy and childbirth [ch 8: pages 241-242] (165 words)

Breastfeeding at work [ch 8: page 242] (239 words)

Unpaid parental leave [ch 8: pages 242-243] (397 words)

Leave for Family Emergencies [ch 8: pages 243-24] (468 words)

Flexible working [ch 8: pages 244-245] (384 words)

The employee’s request [ch 8: page 245] (144 words)

The employer’s response [ch 8: page 246] (255 words)

The eight business reasons [ch 8: pages 246-247] (179 words)

The decision [ch 8: pages 247-248] (689 words)

Some case law examples involving flexible working [ch 8: page 248] (250 words)

More information [ch 8: page 249] (43 words)

Employee Shareholder Status [ch 8: page 249] (47 words)

Additional parental leave and pay — a summary [ch 8: pages 249-250] (383 words)

Changes in the pipeline — childcare [ch 8: page 250] (168 words)

Chapter 9

9. Industrial action [ch 9: page 251] (317 words)

The law relating to industrial action covers not just strikes but lockouts, go slows, working to rule, and refusing to cross picket lines, regardless ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike and the European Court of Human Rights [ch 9: pages 251-252] (208 words)

European Union law [ch 9: page 252] (374 words)

UK industrial action law — the immunities [ch 9: page 252] (69 words)

Trade dispute [ch 9: pages 253-254] (722 words)

Workplace reps [ch 9: pages 254-255] (200 words)

“Official” or “unofficial” action [ch 9: pages 255-256] (525 words)

Balloting [ch 9: pages 256-260] (1,941 words)

Requirements to notify employers [ch 9: page 260] (68 words)

Notification stages [ch 9: pages 260-261] (755 words)

Picketing [ch 9: pages 262-263] (622 words)

Supporting other workers [ch 9: page 263] (113 words)

Ban on use of agency workers to replace striking workers [ch 9: pages 263-264] (85 words)

How the law aids employers [ch 9: page 264] (57 words)

Injunctions [ch 9: pages 264-265] (364 words)

Dismissal [ch 9: page 265] (156 words)

No express statutory protection from action short of dismissal [ch 9: page 265] (177 words)

Deducting pay [ch 9: pages 265-266] (515 words)

Lockouts [ch 9: pages 266-267] (264 words)

Criminal law [ch 9: pages 267-268] (309 words)

State benefits for strikers [ch 9: page 268] (244 words)

Conservative threats to industrial action laws [ch 9: pages 268-269] (458 words)

More information [ch 9: page 270] (93 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal [ch 10: page 271] (418 words)

Unlike many of the laws discussed in this guide, unfair dismissal law is largely “home-grown” domestic law, as opposed to legislation enacted in ...
Subscribers only

Who is allowed to bring a claim for unfair dismissal? [ch 10: pages 271-273] (386 words)

What is a dismissal? [ch 10: page 273] (166 words)

Employees cannot contract out of unfair dismissal protection [ch 10: pages 273-274] (180 words)

Resignation [ch 10: pages 274-275] (576 words)

Notice [ch 10: page 275] (92 words)

When employers give notice [ch 10: pages 275-276] (256 words)

Payment in lieu of notice [ch 10: page 276] (151 words)

When employees give notice [ch 10: pages 276-277] (328 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence [ch 10: page 277] (74 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract [ch 10: page 277] (59 words)

Constructive dismissal [ch 10: page 277] (140 words)

Fundamental contract breach [ch 10: pages 278-279] (386 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach [ch 10: page 279] (113 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach [ch 10: pages 279-281] (885 words)

Grievance [ch 10: pages 281-282] (473 words)

Last straw cases [ch 10: page 282] (145 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks [ch 10: pages 282-283] (387 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair [ch 10: pages 283-284] (213 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 284] (71 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable? [ch 10: page ] (116 words)

The band of reasonable responses [ch 10: pages 284-285] (231 words)

The need for consistency [ch 10: page 285] (116 words)

The need to follow a fair procedure [ch 10: page 285] (115 words)

The Acas Code: Disciplinary procedures [ch 10: pages 285-286] (335 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal [ch 10: pages 286-287] (163 words)

Warnings [ch 10: pages 287-288] (428 words)

Lapsed warnings [ch 10: page 288] (260 words)

Appeals [ch 10: pages 288-289] (310 words)

Capability dismissals [ch 10: page 289] (218 words)

Conduct dismissals [ch 10: pages 289-292] (1,063 words)

Drink and drugs [ch 10: page 292] (81 words)

Conduct outside work [ch 10: page 292] (149 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence [ch 10: pages 292-293] (91 words)

Gross misconduct [ch 10: pages 293-294] (330 words)

Redundancy [ch 10: page 294] (80 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction [ch 10: page 294] (62 words)

Loss of driving licence [ch 10: page 294] (91 words)

Immigration status [ch 10: page 294] (58 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason [ch 10: pages 294-295] (134 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree terms and conditions changes [ch 10: pages 295-297] (865 words)

Dismissals due to a breakdown in trust and confidence [ch 10: page 297] (77 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure [ch 10: page 297] (185 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant [ch 10: page 297] (70 words)

Dismissal for manifesting extreme political opinions [ch 10: pages 297-298] (138 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder [ch 10: page 298] (106 words)

Retirement is no longer a fair reason for dismissal [ch 10: page 298] (120 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 298] (75 words)

Pregnancy and parental rights [ch 10: pages 298-299] (297 words)

Dismissals and business transfers [ch 10: page 299] (113 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership [ch 10: pages 299-300] (285 words)

Dismissals and union recognition [ch 10: page 300] (26 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting [ch 10: page 300] (37 words)

Dismissals and representation rights [ch 10: page 300] (31 words)

Dismissal and industrial action [ch 10: pages 300-301] (537 words)

Dismissals and enforcing a statutory right [ch 10: pages 301-302] (135 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions [ch 10: page 302] (45 words)

Part-time or fixed-term employees [ch 10: page 302] (28 words)

Employed agency workers [ch 10: page 302] (29 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety [ch 10: pages 302-303] (327 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays [ch 10: page 303] (29 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees [ch 10: page 303] (57 words)

Pension auto-enrolment [ch 10: page 303] (41 words)

National Minimum Wage and working time rights [ch 10: page 303] (32 words)

Whistleblowing [ch 10: pages 303-305] (748 words)

The right to be accompanied [ch 10: pages 305-307] (969 words)

Disciplinary records [ch 10: page 307] (94 words)

The effective date of termination [ch 10: pages 307-309] (809 words)

Acas Early Conciliation [ch 10: page 309] (81 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim [ch 10: page 309] (667 words)

Continuous employment [ch 10: pages 310-311] (409 words)

The statutory rules on continuity of service [ch 10: pages 311-313] (871 words)

The effect of illegality on unfair dismissal rights [ch 10: pages 313-314] (171 words)

Remedies [ch 10: page 314] (71 words)

Reinstatement or re-engagement [ch 10: pages 314-315] (443 words)

Compensation [ch 10: page 315] (52 words)

The basic award [ch 10: pages 315-316] (317 words)

The compensatory award [ch 10: page 316] (184 words)

The compensatory award — what can be claimed [ch 10: pages 316-317] (483 words)

Mitigating losses [ch 10: pages 318-319] (567 words)

Contributory fault [ch 10: page 319] (294 words)

Other deductions and adjustments [ch 10: pages 319-320] (256 words)

The statutory cap [ch 10: page 320] (179 words)

The additional award [ch 10: pages 320-321] (132 words)

Interest and tax [ch 10: page 321] (76 words)

Insolvency [ch 10: page 321] (203 words)

Wrongful dismissal [ch 10: pages 321-322] (196 words)

More information [ch 10: page 322] (55 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy [ch 11: pages 323-324] (442 words)

Not every situation in which employees lose their job through no fault of their own is covered by redundancy law and confusingly, “redundancy” ...
Subscribers only

What if there is less work but no cut in the number of employees? (667 words)

Relocation redundancy [ch 11: pages 325-326] (613 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties [ch 11: pages 326-327] (480 words)

Has there been a dismissal? [ch 11: pages 327-328] (124 words)

Voluntary redundancy [ch 11: page 328] (263 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts [ch 11: pages 328-329] (490 words)

Notice [ch 11: pages 329-330] (310 words)

Collective redundancy consultation [ch 11: pages 330-332] (778 words)

The duty to provide information to reps [ch 11: page 332] (248 words)

What about data protection and confidentiality? [ch 11: page 333] (133 words)

Consultation must be in “good time” [ch 11: pages 333-334] (550 words)

When does consultation end? [ch 11: pages 334-335] (272 words)

Calculating the number of employees [ch 11: page 335] (37 words)

Redeployment [ch 11: page 335] (109 words)

Significant changes to terms and conditions [ch 11: page 335] (141 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts [ch 11: pages 335-336] (367 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation [ch 11: page 336] (65 words)

Who should be consulted [ch 11: pages 337-338] (634 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training [ch 11: page 338] (100 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BIS [ch 11: page 338] (75 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation [ch 11: page 339] (458 words)

Acas guidance: How to manage collective redundancies [ch 11: page 340] (221 words)

Remedies for failure to consult — protective award [ch 11: pages 340-341] (198 words)

Calculating the protective award [ch 11: page 341] (250 words)

The “special circumstances” defence [ch 11: pages 341-342] (379 words)

Selection for redundancy [ch 11: pages 342-343] (544 words)

Deciding on the selection pool [ch 11: pages 343-344] (303 words)

Selection criteria and methods [ch 11: pages 344-345] (276 words)

Disability [ch 11: pages 345-346] (422 words)

Age [ch 11: page 346] (135 words)

Last in, first out [ch 11: pages 346-347] (249 words)

Trade union membership and activities [ch 11: page 347] (236 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination [ch 11: pages 347-348] (237 words)

Selection for redundancy during maternity leave [ch 11: pages 348-349] (567 words)

Redundancy selection and part-time or fixed-term employees [ch 11: page 349] (152 words)

Checklist — redundancy selection and indirect discrimination [ch 11: pages 349-350] (261 words)

Apprentices [ch 11: pages 350-351] (291 words)

Checklist — Challenging discriminatory selection for redundancy [ch 11: pages 351-352] (251 words)

Individual redundancy consultation [ch 11: pages 352-353] (650 words)

Alternative work [ch 11: pages 354-355] (886 words)

The statutory trial period [ch 11: page 356] (221 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available employment [ch 11: pages 356-359] (1,238 words)

Looking for work [ch 11: page 359] (140 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy [ch 11: pages 359-360] (502 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals [ch 11: pages 360-362] (577 words)

Checklist — Claiming unfair redundancy dismissal [ch 11: page 362] (214 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights [ch 11: pages 362-363] (99 words)

Crown employees [ch 11: page 363] (64 words)

Redundancy payments [ch 11: pages 363-364] (335 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay [ch 11: page 364] (18 words)

Establishing a contractual right to a redundancy payment [ch 11: pages 364-367] (1,232 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination [ch 11: page 367] (199 words)

Redundancies in local government [ch 11: page 367] (113 words)

Redundancy payments and tax [ch 11: page 368] (61 words)

Lay offs and short time working [ch 11: pages 368-369] (397 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency [ch 11: pages 369-370] (604 words)

State benefits [ch 11: page 371] (28 words)

More information [ch 11: page 371] (93 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE [ch 12: page 372] (131 words)

The Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of Employment) Regulations 2006 (TUPE), were introduced to protect the rights of employees on the transfer ...
Subscribers only

Government guidance on TUPE [ch 12: page 372] (78 words)

New EU Directives on Public Procurement [ch 12: page 372] (128 words)

Some key facts about TUPE [ch 12: pages 373-374] (458 words)

Relevant transfers [ch 12: page 374] (157 words)

Business transfers [ch 12: pages 374-376] (640 words)

Service provision changes [ch 12: page 376] (287 words)

Are the services fundamentally the same? [ch 12: page 377] (342 words)

Change in identity of the client commissioning the services [ch 12: page 377] (88 words)

Organised grouping of employees [ch 12: pages 378-379] (836 words)

Service fragmentation [ch 12: pages 380-381] (494 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change [ch 12: page ]381 (67 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration [ch 12: page 381] (336 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods [ch 12: page 382] (173 words)

Who transfers? [ch 12: pages 382-384] (731 words)

The transfer date [ch 12: page 384] (128 words)

Objecting to the transfer [ch 12: page 384] (124 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change [ch 12: pages 384-385] (295 words)

TUPE and changes in location [ch 12: page 385] (211 words)

Workforce reorganisation in the run up to a transfer [ch 12: pages 385-387] (670 words)

Retention of Employment Model [ch 12: page 387] (177 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE [ch 12: pages 387-388] (272 words)

Who has the right to be informed and consulted and when [ch 12: pages 388-389] (525 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies [ch 12: pages 389-391] (598 words)

What information must be provided to reps? [ch 12: page 391] (275 words)

Is there a minimum or fixed timescale for consultation? [ch 12: page 391] (85 words)

When should consultation start? [ch 12: page 392] (162 words)

Enforcing the TUPE information and consultation duties [ch 12: page 392] (225 words)

The “special circumstances” defence [ch 12: pages 392-393] (89 words)

Employee liability information [ch 12: page 393] (160 words)

Transfers within public administration [ch 12: pages 393-394] (278 words)

Abolition of the two-tier codes [ch 12: page 394] (182 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions [ch 12: pages 394-395] (253 words)

TUPE and pensions [ch 12: pages 395-396] (447 words)

TUPE and Fair Deal for Pensions [ch 12: pages 396-397] (402 words)

Early retirement benefits [ch 12: page 397] (173 words)

TUPE and collective agreements [ch 12: page 397] (79 words)

TUPE and trade union recognition [ch 12: page 398] (57 words)

Changes to contract terms after a transfer [ch 12: page 398] (384 words)

Changes to terms incorporated from a collective agreement [ch 12: page 399] (367 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining [ch 12: pages 399-401] (507 words)

Express contract terms that permit change [ch 12: page 401] (208 words)

Changing terms for an economic, technical or organisational reason [ch 12: pages 401-403] (664 words)

Changes for a reason unconnected to the transfer [ch 12: page 403] (126 words)

Changes to discretionary terms and non-contractual working practices [ch 12: page 403] (56 words)

How long are contract terms protected? [ch 12: page 403] (123 words)

Protection against unfair dismissal and TUPE [ch 12: pages 404-405] (514 words)

Who should a claim be brought against? [ch 12: page 405] (98 words)

What is the deadline for any claim? [ch 12: page 405] (81 words)

TUPE and insolvency [ch 12: page 405] (138 words)

TUPE and insolvent administrations [ch 12: page 406] (246 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency [ch 12: pages 406-407] (195 words)

Winding up the business [ch 12: page 407] (120 words)

More information [ch 12: page 407] (33 words)

Chapter 13

13. Bringing a tribunal claim [ch 13: page 408] (58 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing a claim in the employment tribunal and the main stages of the tribunal process. A new ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim [ch 13: page 408] (250 words)

Acas Early Conciliation [ch 13: pages 408-410] (704 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas early conciliation [ch 13: page 410] (259 words)

Tribunal fees [ch 13: pages 410-412] (675 words)

Fee remission (full or partial fee exemption) [ch 13: page 412] (153 words)

Capital threshold [ch 13: page 412] (98 words)

Passported benefits [ch 13: page 412] (51 words)

Income threshold [ch 13: pages 413-414] (754 words)

The ET1 Claim Form [ch 13: pages 414-415] (480 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim Form? [ch 13: pages 415-416] (170 words)

Time limits [ch 13: page416 ] (273 words)

Initial consideration [ch 13: page 416] (103 words)

Case management orders [ch 13: page 416] (158 words)

Schedule of loss [ch 13: page 416] (79 words)

Preliminary hearings [ch 13: pages 417-418] (447 words)

Unless Orders [ch 13: page 418] (164 words)

Exchange of documents [ch 13: pages 418-419] (274 words)

Fixing a date for the hearing [ch 13: page 419] (85 words)

Postponement requests [ch 13: pages 419-420] (241 words)

Witness statements [ch 13: page 420] (298 words)

The main hearing [ch 13: pages 420-421] (365 words)

Judgment — written reasons [ch 13: page 421] (129 words)

Costs orders [ch 13: pages 421-422] (696 words)

Enforcing tribunal awards and costs orders [ch 13: pages 423-424] (191 words)

Financial penalties paid by an employer [ch 13: page 424] (78 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal [ch 13: pages 424-425] (378 words)

Settling a claim [ch 13: pages 425-426] (497 words)

“Without prejudice” discussions [ch 13: page 426] (121 words)

Protected conversations [ch 13: pages 426-427] (497 words)

Improper behaviour [ch 13: pages 427-428] (128 words)

Covert recording [ch 13: page 428] (297 words)

Mediation [ch 13: page 429] (90 words)

More information [ch 13: page 429] (54 words)

Further information

Further information (685 words)

Copies of relevant statutes can be obtained online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is available online from the Labour ...
Subscribers only