LRD Booklets June 2016

Law at Work 2016

buy now

Introduction

Introduction 
 [pages 15-22] (2,645 words)

Law at Work, now in its 28th year of publication, is being released against the backdrop of a clear attack on trade union rights and freedoms, in the ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system 
 [ch 1: page 23] (237 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

European Union law 
 [ch 1: pages 23-24] (858 words)

Human rights law
 [ch 1: pages 24-26] (751 words)

The employment tribunal system 
 [ch 1: pages 26-28] (721 words)

Personal injury claims 
 [ch 1: pages 29-30] (513 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes
 [ch 1: page 30] (256 words)

Criminal law 
 [ch 1: page 31] (53 words)

Changes to employment regulation in Scotland 
 [ch 1: page 31] (388 words)

An online employment tribunal?
 [ch 1: page 32] (354 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker 
 [ch 2: page 33] (47 words)

The employment status laws determine what level and range of employment rights (if any) an individual can access. Reps need a basic knowledge of ...
Subscribers only

Employment status
 [ch 2: pages 33-34] (849 words)

Employee, worker or self-employed? 
 [ch 2: pages 35-36] (287 words)

Mutuality of obligation 
 [ch 2: pages 36-37] (335 words)

Personal service
 [ch 2: pages 37-38] (601 words)

Degree of control 
 [ch 2: page 38] (183 words)

Sham employment documentation
 [ch 2: pages 38-40] (942 words)

Self-employment 
 [ch 2: pages 40-42] (697 words)

False self-employment 
 [ch 2: page 42] (292 words)

Umbrella companies
 [ch 2: pages 43-44] (449 words)

Personal service companies
 [ch 2: page 44] (194 words)

Zero hours contract workers 
 [ch 2: pages 44-47] (1,198 words)

Part-time workers 
 [ch 2: pages 47-49] (1,252 words)

Homeworkers 
 [ch 2: pages 49-50] (188 words)

Volunteers 
 [ch 2: page 50] (166 words)

Interns 
 [ch 2: pages 50-51] (297 words)

Young workers 
 [ch 2: page 51] (202 words)

Apprentices 
 [ch 2: pages 51-53] (631 words)

Children 
 [ch 2: page 53] (199 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees 
 [ch 2: pages 53-55] (1,101 words)

Agency workers 
 [ch 2: page 56] (148 words)

Rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010
 [ch 2: pages 56-58] (901 words)

Who is protected by the AWRs?
 [ch 2: pages 58-59] (343 words)

The Swedish derogation 
 [ch 2: pages 59-60] (451 words)

Other rights for agency workers 
 [ch 2: pages 60-61] (381 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy
 [ch 2: pages 61-62] (267 words)

Crown employees 
 [ch 2: page 62] (89 words)

Employee shareholders 
 [ch 2: pages 62-64] (492 words)

Posted workers — the European Posted Workers Directive
 [ch 2: page 63] (336 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract 
 [ch 3: pages 65-67] (1,318 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work for the first time are likely to have references from ...
Subscribers only

The right to work in the UK 
 [ch 3: pages 67-69] (916 words)

The Modern Slavery Act 2015
 [ch 3: pages 69-70] (127 words)

The Gangmasters Licensing Authority
 [ch 3: page 70] (179 words)

Ban on pre-employment health checks 
 [ch 3: pages 70-71] (242 words)

Criminal convictions 
 [ch 3: pages 71-72] (433 words)

Jobs that require a DBS check
 [ch 3: pages 72-73] (693 words)

Ban on questions about pension opt-out during recruitment 
 [ch 3: page 73] (72 words)

The employment contract 
 [ch 3: page 74] (241 words)

Written statement of employment particulars 
 [ch 3: pages 74-77] (1,190 words)

Terms of the contract 
 [ch 3: page 77] (52 words)

Express terms 
 [ch 3: pages 77-80] (1,704 words)

Implied terms 
 [ch 3: pages 81-84] (1,826 words)

Works rules and collective agreements 
 [ch 3: pages 84-86] (565 words)

Is the collective term ‘apt’ for incorporation? 
 [ch 3: pages 86-88] (928 words)

Illegal contract terms 
 [ch 3: page 88] (278 words)

Restrictive covenants 
 [ch 3: pages 88-89] (247 words)

Contract changes 
 [ch 3: page 89] (301 words)

Express or implied agreement to change
 [ch 3: page 90] (504 words)

Breach of contract 
 [ch 3: page 90] (401 words)

Bringing a claim
 [ch 3: pages 91-92] (407 words)

Other remedies 
 [ch 3: page 92] (74 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions 
 [ch 4: page 93] (330 words)

Under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, workers have the right to a minimum wage. 
 ...
Subscribers only

New National Minimum Wage Regulations 
 [ch 4: page 93] (57 words)

Who is eligible for the National Minimum Wage 
 [ch 4: page 94] (232 words)

Agricultural Workers
 [ch 4: pages 94-95] (307 words)

Excluded workers 
 [ch 4: page 95] (153 words)

How the National Minimum Wage is calculated 
 [ch 4: pages 95-96] (174 words)

Hourly-paid workers — time work
 [ch 4: page 96] (213 words)

Time spent sleeping
 [ch 4: pages 96-97] (678 words)

Travelling between assignments and the NMW 
 [ch 4: page 98] (220 words)

Time spent travelling to and from the first and last assignment of the day
 [ch 4: page 98] (166 words)

Unmeasured work
 [ch 4: pages 98-100] (599 words)

Tips 
 [ch 4: page 100] (85 words)

Piece workers (“output” work)
 [ch 4: page 100] (71 words)

Homeworkers
 [ch 4: page 100] (73 words)

Enforcement 
 [ch 4: pages 100-101] (109 words)

HMRC recovery powers and penalties for employers who fail to pay NMW
 [ch 4: page 101] (336 words)

Bringing an employment tribunal claim for the NMW
 [ch 4: pages 101-102] (244 words)

NMW avoidance devices
 [ch 4: page 102] (107 words)

Pay slips and pay intervals 
 [ch 4: page 102] (150 words)

Deductions and underpayments 
 [ch 4: pages 103-106] (1,526 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions 
 [ch 4: pages 106-107] (513 words)

Guarantee pay (pay during lay-off or short-time working)
 [ch 4: pages 107-109] (931 words)

Medical suspension pay 
 [ch 4: page 109] (183 words)

Maternity suspension 
 [ch 4: page 109] (108 words)

Overtime pay 
 [ch 4: page 110] (354 words)

Pensions — Auto-enrolment
 [ch 4: pages 110-111] (260 words)

New state pension 
 [ch 4: page 111] (279 words)

Public sector pension changes
 [ch 4: page 112] (64 words)

Working hours and breaks 
 [ch 4: pages 112-113] (444 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week 
 [ch 4: page 113] (204 words)

Rest breaks 
 [ch 4: pages 113-115] (1,090 words)

Travelling to and from work (mobile workers)
 [ch 4: pages 115-116] (267 words)

Sunday working 
 [ch 4: pages 116-117] (390 words)

Time on-call 
 [ch 4: pages 117-118] (609 words)

Night workers 
 [ch 4: page 118] (50 words)

Holidays and holiday pay 
 [ch 4: pages 118-122] (1,778 words)

Holidays and sickness absence 
 [ch 4: page 122] (210 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness absence
 [ch 4: pages 122-123] (535 words)

Falling ill when on holiday 
 [ch 4: pages 123-124] (247 words)

Bank holidays 
 [ch 4: page 124] (353 words)

Time off for public duties 
 [ch 4: page 125] (274 words)

Time off for study or training 
 [ch 4: pages 125-126] (415 words)

Other statutory rights to time off 
 [ch 4: page 126] (59 words)

Protection of whistleblowers [ch 4: pages 126-129] (1,073 words)

Data Protection at work
 [ch 4: pages 129-131] (941 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation 
 [ch 5: page 132] (365 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), as amended. The ...
Subscribers only

Trade union rights are human rights 
 [ch 5: pages 132-134] (686 words)

Ban on employer offering inducements 
 [ch 5: pages 134-135] (374 words)

Closed shop
 [ch 5: page 135] (65 words)

Voluntary recognition of a trade union
 [ch 5: page 135] (286 words)

The statutory recognition procedure 
 [ch 5: pages 136-139] (1,394 words)

‘Representativity’
 [ch 5: page 139] (158 words)

Is it a trade union at all?
 [ch 5: pages 139-140] (204 words)

The statutory recognition ballot 
 [ch 5: pages 140-142] (946 words)

Derecognition 
 [ch 5: page 142] (293 words)

Territorial scope 
 [ch 5: page 142] (118 words)

Rights to time off 
 [ch 5: pages 143-147] (2,080 words)

Rights to information for collective bargaining 
 [ch 5: pages 147-148] (497 words)

Protection of union members from victimisation 
 [ch 5: pages 148-152] (1,832 words)

Anti-union blacklisting 
 [ch 5: pages 152-155] (1,231 words)

Interim relief 
 [ch 5: pages 155-156] (527 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives 
 [ch 5: page 157] (93 words)

Employee reps and European Works Councils
 [ch 5: page 157] (208 words)

National level information and consultation 
 [ch 5: pages 157-158] (505 words)

Internal union matters 
 [ch 5: pages 158-160] (743 words)

New powers for the Certification Officer
 [ch 5: pages 160-161] (434 words)

Check-off arrangements 
 [ch 5: pages 161-162] (519 words)

Political funds
 [ch 5: pages 162-163] (443 words)

Chapter 6

6. Industrial action 
 [ch 6: page 164] (368 words)

The United Kingdom has some of the most restrictive strike laws in the developed world, and under the Trade Union Act 2016 (TUA16), those laws will ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike in the UK
 [ch 6: paged 164-165] (368 words)

International criticism of the right to strike in the UK
 [ch 6: page 165] (220 words)

European Union law
 [ch 6: page 166] (453 words)

UK industrial action law — the immunities 
 [ch 6: page 167] (70 words)

Trade dispute 
 [ch 6: pages 167-168] (809 words)

Workplace reps 
 [ch 6: pages 168-169] (212 words)

Official or unofficial action 
 [ch 6: pages 169-170] (544 words)

New annual reporting duty — industrial action 
 [ch 6: page 170] (162 words)

Balloting 
 [ch 6: page 170] (60 words)

Ballot thresholds
 [ch 6: pages 170-171] (662 words)

The ballot process
 [ch 6: pages 172-176] (1,978 words)

Limited life of ballot
 [ch 6: page 176-178] (92 words)

Requirements to notify employers 
 [ch 6: pages 176-177] (667 words)

Balloting restrictions challenged in the ECHR
 [ch 6: page 178] (291 words)

Use of agency workers to replace striking workers 
 [ch 6: pages 178-179] (190 words)

Picketing 
 [ch 6: pages 179-181] (957 words)

Supporting other workers 
 [ch 6: page 181] (117 words)

Trade Union Act 2016
 [ch 6: pages 181-182] (496 words)

Criminal law
 [ch 6: pages 182-183] (284 words)

How the law aids employers 
 [ch 6: page 183] (72 words)

Injunctions 
 [ch 6: pages 183-184] (372 words)

Dismissal 
 [ch 6: page 184] (160 words)

Action short of dismissal 
 [ch 6: page 184] (102 words)

Deducting pay 
 [ch 6: page 185] (513 words)

Lockouts 
 [ch 6: page 186] (249 words)

State benefits for strikers 
 [ch 6: page 186] (247 words)

Chapter 7

7. Discrimination 
 [ch 7: page 187] (188 words)

The Equality Act 2010 (EA 10) became law on 8 April 2010. The EA 10 did not make many significant changes to existing equality laws, but it helpfully ...
Subscribers only

Tribunal fees 
 [ch 7: page 187] (163 words)

Acas Early Conciliation 
 [ch 7: page 187] (68 words)

The protected characteristics 
 [ch 7: page 188] (161 words)

Age 
 [ch 7: pages 188-189] (284 words)

Disability 
 [ch 7: page 189] (225 words)

‘Normal day-to-day activities’
 [ch 7: pages 189-190] (392 words)

Proving the existence of disability 
 [ch 7: pages 190-191] (394 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered 
 [ch 7: page 191] (86 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability 
 [ch 7: pages 191-193] (622 words)

Certain conditions are deemed a disability 
 [ch 7: page 193] (73 words)

Progressive conditions 
 [ch 7: page 193] (66 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment 
 [ch 7: page 193] (131 words)

Recurring conditions 
 [ch 7: page 193] (106 words)

Gender reassignment 
 [ch 7: pages 193-195] (535 words)

Marriage and civil partnership 
 [ch 7: page 195] (285 words)

Sexual orientation 
 [ch 7: pages 195-196] (41 words)

Race 
 [ch 7: page 196] (272 words)

Caste 
 [ch 7: pages 196-197] (370 words)

Religion or belief 
 [ch 7: pages 197-199] (935 words)

Political belief 
 [ch 7: page 199] (219 words)

Pregnancy or maternity 
 [ch 7: pages 200-201] (595 words)

Surrogacy 
 [ch 7: page 201] (70 words)

IVF 
 [ch 7: page 201] (110 words)

Sex or gender 
 [ch 7: pages 201-202] (88 words)

Who is protected by the Equality Act 2010 
 [ch 7: pages 202-203] (507 words)

Volunteers 
 [ch 7: page 2013] (132 words)

Interns 
 [ch 7: pages 203-204] (126 words)

Workers outside Great Britain 
 [ch 7: page 204] (77 words)

Seafarers and discrimination 
 [ch 7: page 204] (72 words)

Illegal workers and discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 204-205] (302 words)

Conduct prohibited by the Equality Act 2010
 [ch 7: page 205] (88 words)

Direct discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 205-206] (402 words)

Less favourable treatment 
 [ch 7: pages 206-207] (486 words)

The need for a comparator 
 [ch 7: page 207] (309 words)

Detriment
 [ch 7: page 208] (103 words)

Associative and perceptive discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 208-209] (481 words)

Is there a defence to direct discrimination? 
 [ch 7: pages 209-210] (509 words)

Exceptions to the definition of direct discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 210-211] (249 words)

Indirect discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 211-214] (1,629 words)

Harassment 
 [ch 7: pages 214-216] (784 words)

Sexual harassment 
 [ch 7: page 216] (253 words)

Associative and perceptive harassment 
 [ch 7: page 217] (268 words)

Third party harassment 
 [ch 7: pages 217-218] (256 words)

The employer’s duty to act 
 [ch 7: page 218] (72 words)

Other laws to combat harassment in the workplace 
 [ch 7: page 218] (128 words)

Victimisation 
 [ch 7: pages 218-220] (805 words)

Disability discrimination — reasonable adjustments and discrimination arising from disability 
 [ch 7: page 220] (78 words)

Employer’s knowledge of disability
 [ch 7: pages 220-222] (790 words)

Discrimination ‘arising from’ disability 
 [ch 7: pages 222-223] (574 words)

The duty to make reasonable adjustments for disabled workers 
 [ch 7: pages 223-224] (449 words)

Auxiliary aids 
 [ch 7: pages 224-225] (71 words)

Physical features 
 [ch 7: page 225] (84 words)

Substantial disadvantage 
 [ch 7: page 225] (24 words)

What is a reasonable adjustment?
 [ch 7: pages 225-226] (616 words)

The employer’s liability for discrimination and harassment 
 [ch 7: pages 226-227] (170 words)

The employer’s ‘reasonable steps’ defence 
 [ch 7: page 227] (279 words)

Harassment or discrimination outside work 
 [ch 7: page 228] (81 words)

Liability of employer for acts of non-employees
 [ch 7: page 228] (282 words)

Practical applications of discrimination law in the workplace 
 [ch 7: pages 228-229] (376 words)

Access to promotion and job changes 
 [ch 7: page 229] (118 words)

Voluntary positive action in recruitment and promotion 
 [ch 7: page 230] (160 words)

Terms and conditions 
 [ch 7: page 230] (284 words)

Resisting discriminatory changes to terms and conditions 
 [ch 7: page 231] (198 words)

Dress codes 
 [ch 7: pages 231-233] (799 words)

Working hours and work organisation 
 [ch 7: pages 233-234] (717 words)

Language in the workplace
 [ch 7: pages 234-236] (610 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures 
 [ch 7: pages 236-237] (387 words)

Termination of employment 
 [ch 7: page 237] (176 words)

Redundancy 
 [ch 7: page 237] (28 words)

Retirement 
 [ch 7: pages 238-240] (965 words)

Equal pay 
 [ch 7: page 240] (324 words)

Sex equality clause 
 [ch 7: page 241] (99 words)

What terms are covered by the sex equality clause? 
 [ch 7: page 241] (290 words)

What is equal work? 
 [ch 7: pages 241-242] (375 words)

Who can an employee compare herself with? 
 [ch 7: pages 242-243] (516 words)

What does “in the same employment” mean? 
 [ch 7: pages 243-244] (237 words)

The ‘genuine material factor’ defence 
 [ch 7: pages 244-245] (734 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay 
 [ch 7: pages 245-246] (524 words)

Part-time work and equal pay 
 [ch 7: pages 246-247] (176 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay 
 [ch 7: page 247] (54 words)

Length of service 
 [ch 7: page 247] (34 words)

Time limits 
 [ch 7: page 247] (228 words)

What can be claimed? 
 [ch 7: page 248] (46 words)

Pay transparency and equal pay audits 
 [ch 7: pages 248-249] (451 words)

Compulsory gender pay-gap reporting
 [ch 7: page 249] (237 words)

Abolition of the statutory equal pay questionnaire 
 [ch 7: pages 249-250] (185 words)

Pay secrecy and information on the pay gap 
 [ch 7: page 250] (117 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty 
 [ch 7: pages 250-252] (634 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim
 [ch 7: page 252] (120 words)

Written grievance
 [ch 7: page 252] (212 words)

Asking an employer questions about suspected discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 252-253] (266 words)

Proving discrimination — the burden of proof
 [ch 7: pages 253-254] (473 words)

Time limits
 [ch 7: page 254] (151 words)

Continuing discrimination 
 [ch 7: pages 254-255] (428 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim 
 [ch 7: pages 255-256] (252 words)

Length of service 
 [ch 7: page 256] (28 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers 
 [ch 7: page 256] (42 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers 
 [ch 7: page 256] (32 words)

Power to make recommendations 
 [ch 7: pages 256-257] (252 words)

Compensation 
 [ch 7: pages 257-259] (853 words)

Chapter 8

8. Sick pay and sickness absence 
 [ch 8: page 260] (405 words)

An employer must provide employees with details of their sick pay entitlement as part of the written statement of employment particulars within two ...
Subscribers only

Eligibility for SSP 
 [ch 8: pages 260-261] (121 words)

Rules about notifying the employer 
 [ch 8: page 361] (92 words)

Claiming SSP 
 [ch 8: page 261] (49 words)

The Fit Note 
 [ch 8: pages 261-263] (770 words)

The Fit for Work Service 
 [ch 8: pages 263-264] (635 words)

Occupational sick pay 
 [ch 8: pages 264-266] (849 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay 
 [ch 8: pages 266-267] (900 words)

Phased returns and sick pay 
 [ch 8: page 268] (128 words)

Sick pay and pregnancy 
 [ch 8: page 268] (82 words)

Sick pay and disability
 [ch 8: page 268] (90 words)

Keeping in touch with absent staff who are off sick 
 [ch 8: pages 268-269] (324 words)

Sickness absence and holiday 
 [ch 8: page 269] (30 words)

Absence management procedures 
 [ch 8: pages 269-270] (320 words)

Equality issues in absence management procedures
 [ch 8: pages 270-271] (516 words)

Sickness absence dismissals and disability discrimination 
 [ch 8: pages 271-273] (1,012 words)

Sickness absence and unfair dismissal
 [ch 8: page 273] (41 words)

Dismissal due to long-term sickness absence
 [ch 8: pages 273-276] (1,456 words)

Dismissal due to a poor attendance record 
 [ch 8: pages 277-278] (713 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness absence 
 [ch 8: pages 278-279] (282 words)

Sickness absence and ‘frustration of contract’ 
 [ch 8: page 279] (227 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period 
 [ch 8: pages 279-280] (104 words)

Sickness absence and strike action 
 [ch 8: page 280] (221 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection 
 [ch 8: page 280] (97 words)

Medical reports and the law 
 [ch 8: pages 280-281] (329 words)

Pre-employment health checks 
 [ch 8: page 281] (64 words)

Surveillance of employees on sick leave 
 [ch 8: pages 281-282] (507 words)

Chapter 9

9. Rights to time off work for working parents and carers 
 [ch 9: page 283] (146 words)

This Chapter sets out the rights available to working parents and carers. 
 ...
Subscribers only

Minimum statutory rights to leave 
 [ch 9: page 283] (134 words)

Protection from detriment or dismissal 
 [ch 9: pages 283-284] (161 words)

Rights to time off for ante-natal care
 [ch 9: page 284] (201 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments
 [ch 9: pages 284-285] (222 words)

New rights to time off for prospective adoptees
 [ch 9: page 285] (181 words)

Is there a right to time off for IVF appointments? 
 [ch 9: page 285] (190 words)

Enforcing rights to time off 
 [ch 9: pages 285-286] (333 words)

Summary of important recent changes to maternity, adoption and shared parental leave 
 [ch 9: pages 286-287 (236 words)

Who is eligible for statutory maternity leave 
 [ch 9: page 287] (101 words)

Who is eligible for statutory adoption leave 
 [ch 9: page 287] (113 words)

The key elements of statutory maternity leave 
 [ch 9: page 286] (84 words)

The key elements of statutory adoption leave
 [ch 9: page 286] (45 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave 
 [ch 9: page 286] (214 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave 
 [ch 9: pages 286-287] (122 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date 
 [ch 9: page 289] (76 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date 
 [ch 9: page 289] (46 words)

Returning to work early 
 [ch 9: page 289] (45 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave [ch 9: page 289] (137 words)

Who is eligible for shared parental leave (SPL)
 [ch 9: pages 290-291] (446 words)

The key elements of Shared Parental Leave
 [ch 9: page 291] (206 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave 
 [ch 9: page 291] (143 words)

Can a mother change her mind?
 [ch 9: page 292] (152 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL
 [ch 9: pages 292-293] (296 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave
 [ch 9: page 293] (120 words)

Is SPL suitable?
 [ch 9: page 293] (271 words)

Rights during statutory maternity, adoption, paternity and shared parental leave
 [ch 9: page 294] (183 words)

Pension contributions 
 [ch 9: page 294] (69 words)

Contact between employer and employee during leave
 [ch 9: pages 294-295] (177 words)

Keeping in touch (KIT) days 
 [ch 9: page 295] (228 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave 
 [ch 9: page 295] (109 words)

Who qualifies for OPL 
 [ch 9: pages 295-296] (97 words)

Notifying intention to claim OPL 
 [ch 9: page 296] (103 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave
 [ch 9: page 296] (257 words)

Returning to work 
 [ch 9: pages 297-298] (568 words)

Statutory Maternity Pay
 [ch 9: page 298] (100 words)

How much is SMP? 
 [ch 9: page 298] (247 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) 
 [ch 9: page 299] (118 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay 
 [ch 9: page 299] (80 words)

How much is SAP?
 [ch 9: page 299] (84 words)

Statutory Paternity Pay 
 [ch 9: page 299] (41 words)

Statutory Shared Parental Pay 
 [ch 9: pages 299-300] (194 words)

Contractual maternity or adoption pay 
 [ch 9: page 300] (110 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay 
 [ch 9: page 300] (119 words)

Right to medical suspension — pregnancy and childbirth 
 [ch 9: pages 300-301] (167 words)

Breastfeeding at work 
 [ch 9: page 301] (243 words)

Unpaid parental leave 
 [ch 9: pages 301-302] (424 words)

Leave for Family Emergencies 
 [ch 9: pages 302-303] (467 words)

The right to request flexible working 
 [ch 9: pages 303-304] (381 words)

The employee’s request
 [ch 9: pages 304-305] (256 words)

The employer’s response 
 [ch 9: page 305] (264 words)

The employer’s decision
 [ch 9: pages 305-307] (944 words)

Some case law examples involving flexible working
 [ch 9: page 308] (243 words)

Employee Shareholder Status
 [ch 9: page 308] (48 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 309] (366 words)

Unlike many of the laws discussed in this guide, unfair dismissal law is largely “home-grown” domestic law, as opposed to legislation enacted in ...
Subscribers only

Who is allowed to bring a claim for unfair dismissal? 
 [ch 10: pages 309-310] (380 words)

What is a dismissal? 
 [ch 10: page 310] (356 words)

Resignation 
 [ch 10: pages 311-312] (563 words)

Notice
 [ch 10: page 313] (82 words)

When employers give notice
 [ch 10: page 313] (234 words)

Payment in lieu of notice 
 [ch 10: pages 313-314] (173 words)

When employees give notice
 [ch 10: page 314] (322 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence 
 [ch 10: page 314] (75 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract 
 [ch 10: page 315] (71 words)

Constructive dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 315] (144 words)

Fundamental contract breach
 [ch 10: pages 315-316] (446 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach
 [ch 10: page 316] (110 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach
 [ch 10: pages 317] (875 words)

Grievance 
 [ch 10: pages 318-319] (491 words)

Last straw cases
 [ch 10: page 320] (145 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks
 [ch 10: pages 320-321] (488 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair
 [ch 10: page 321] (216 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 322] (73 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable? 
 [ch 10: page 322] (118 words)

The band of reasonable responses
 [ch 10: pages 322-323] (246 words)

The need for consistency
 [ch 10: page 323] (120 words)

A fair procedure
 [ch 10: pages 323-324] (638 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 324] (155 words)

Warnings 
 [ch 10: page 324-326] (456 words)

Lapsed warnings 
 [ch 10: pages 326-327] (267 words)

Appeals
 [ch 10: page 327] (330 words)

Capability dismissals 
 [ch 10: page 329] (257 words)

Conduct dismissals
 [ch 10: pages 328-340] (953 words)

Conduct outside work 
 [ch 10: page 330] (164 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence
 [ch 10: page 331] (92 words)

Gross misconduct 
 [ch 10: pages 331-332] (396 words)

Redundancy 
 [ch 10: page 332] (80 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction 
 [ch 10: page 332] (63 words)

Loss of driving licence
 [ch 10: page 332] (103 words)

Immigration status 
 [ch 10: page 332] (67 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason 
 [ch 10: page 333] (132 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree changes to terms and conditions 
 [ch 10: pages 333-335] (1,021 words)

Dismissals due to a breakdown in trust and confidence 
 [ch 10: page 335] (79 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure 
 [ch 10: pages 335-336] (136 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant
 [ch 10: page 336] (70 words)

Dismissal for manifesting extreme and offensive political opinions 
 [ch 10: page 336] (140 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder
 [ch 10: page 336] (110 words)

Dismissal due to ending and non-renewal of a fixed-term contract
 [ch 10: page 336] (92 words)

Retirement no longer a fair reason for dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 337] (119 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 337] (89 words)

Dismissal and pregnancy and other parental rights 
 [ch 10: pages 337-338] (288 words)

Dismissals and business transfers 
 [ch 10: page 338] (84 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership 
 [ch 10: pages 338-339] (378 words)

Dismissals and union recognition 
 [ch 10: page 339] (28 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting 
 [ch 10: page 339] (36 words)

Dismissals and representation rights 
 [ch 10: page 339] (36 words)

Dismissal and industrial action 
 [ch 10: pages 339-340] (568 words)

Dismissal for enforcing a statutory right 
 [ch 10: page 340] (141 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions 
 [ch 10: page 341] (104 words)

Dismissal of part-time or fixed-term employees 
 [ch 10: page 341] (27 words)

Dismissal of employed agency workers 
 [ch 10: page 341] (30 words)

Dismissal of zero hours contract workers
 [ch 10: page 341] (68 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety 
 [ch 10: pages 341-342] (340 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays 
 [ch 10: page 342] (33 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees 
 [ch 10: page 342] (60 words)

Pension auto-enrolment 
 [ch 10: page 342] (38 words)

National Minimum Wage and working time rights 
 [ch 10: page 342] (32 words)

Dismissal for whistleblowing 
 [ch 10: page 342] (64 words)

The right to be accompanied 
 [ch 10: pages 343-344] (1,334 words)

The effective date of termination 
 [ch 10: pages 345-347] (930 words)

Acas Early Conciliation
 [ch 10: pages 347-348] (127 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim 
 [ch 10: pages 348-349] (615 words)

Continuous employment 
 [ch 10: pages 349-340] (415 words)

The statutory rules on service continuity
 [ch 10: pages 350-352] (815 words)

The effect of illegality on unfair dismissal rights 
 [ch 10: page 352] (176 words)

Remedies 
 [ch 10: page 352] (73 words)

Reinstatement or re-engagement 
 [ch 10: pages 352-353] (421 words)

Compensation 
 [ch 10: page 353] (52 words)

The basic award 
 [ch 10: page 354] (347 words)

The compensatory award 
 [ch 10: pages 354-355] (188 words)

The compensatory award — what can be claimed 
 [ch 10: pages 355-356] (501 words)

Mitigating losses 
 [ch 10: pages 356-357] (541 words)

Contributory fault 
 [ch 10: page 357] (235 words)

Other deductions and adjustments 
 [ch 10: page 358] (258 words)

The statutory cap 
 [ch 10: page 358] (187 words)

The additional award 
 [ch 10: page 359] (91 words)

Interest and tax 
 [ch 10: page 359] (149 words)

Insolvency 
 [ch 10: pages 359-360] (216 words)

Wrongful dismissal 
 [ch 10: page 360] (199 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy 
 [ch 11: page 361] (427 words)

Not every situation in which employees lose their job through no fault of their own is covered by redundancy law and confusingly, “redundancy” ...
Subscribers only

What if there is less work (and fewer hours) but no cut in headcount? 
 [ch 11: pages 362-363] (709 words)

Relocation redundancy 
 [ch 11: pages 363-364] (608 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties 
 [ch 11: pages 364-365] (612 words)

Has there been a dismissal? 
 [ch 11: page 366] (121 words)

Voluntary redundancy 
 [ch 11: page 366] (277 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 
 [ch 11: pages 367-368] (543 words)

Notice 
 [ch 11: page 368] (309 words)

Collective redundancy consultation 
 [ch 11: pages 369-370] (710 words)

The duty to provide information to reps 
 [ch 11: pages 370-371] (255 words)

Collective consultation, data protection and confidentiality 
 [ch 11: page 371] (157 words)

Consultation must be in good time
 [ch 11: pages 371-372] (745 words)

When does consultation end? 
 [ch 11: pages 372-374] (274 words)

Calculating the number of employees
 [ch 11: page 374] (279 words)

Significant changes to terms and conditions 
 [ch 11: pages 374-375] (236 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 
 [ch 11: pages 375-376 ] (377 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation 
 [ch 11: page 376] (76 words)

Who should be consulted 
 [ch 11: pages 376-378] (726 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training 
 [ch 11: page 378] (112 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BIS 
 [ch 11: page 378] (76 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation 
 [ch 11: pages 378-379] (803 words)

Remedies for failure to consult — protective award 
 [ch 11: pages 379-381] (198 words)

Calculating the protective award 
 [ch 11: page 381] (251 words)

The “special circumstances” defence 
 [ch 11: pages 381-383] (721 words)

Selection for redundancy 
 [ch 11: pages 383-384] (546 words)

Deciding on the selection pool 
 [ch 11: pages 384-385] (306 words)

Selection criteria and methods 
 [ch 11: page 385] (282 words)

Disability 
 [ch 11: pages 385-387] (465 words)

Age 
 [ch 11: page 387] (115 words)

Last in, first out 
 [ch 11: page 387] (245 words)

Trade union membership and activities 
 [ch 11: page 388] (236 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination 
 [ch 11: page 388] (186 words)

Selection for redundancy during maternity leave
 [ch 11: pages 389-390] (532 words)

Redundancy selection and part-time or fixed-term employees 
 [ch 11: page 390] (153 words)

Apprentices 
 [ch 11: pages 390-391] (326 words)

Individual redundancy consultation 
 [ch 11: pages 391-392] (649 words)

Alternative work 
 [ch 11: pages 393-394] (893 words)

The statutory trial period 
 [ch 11: page 395] (225 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available vacancy 
 [ch 11: pages 395-396] (1,088 words)

Looking for work 
 [ch 11: pages 397-398] (137 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy 
 [ch 11: pages 398-399] (574 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals 
 [ch 11: pages 399-401] (607 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights 
 [ch 11: page 401] (102 words)

Statutory redundancy pay 
 [ch 11: pages 401-402] (375 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay 
 [ch 11: page 402] (23 words)

Establishing a contractual right to a redundancy payment 
 [ch 11: pages 402-405] (1,295 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination 
 [ch 11: page 405] (209 words)

Public sector redundancy pay
 [ch 11: pages 405-406] (187 words)

Cap on exit payments
 [ch 11: page 406] (455 words)

“Claw-back” of exit payments
 [ch 11: pages 406-408] (241 words)

Redundancy payments and tax 
 [ch 11: page 408] (82 words)

Redundancy pay linked to lay-off and short time working 
 [ch 11: pages 408-409] (487 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency 
 [ch 11: pages 409-410] (704 words)

State benefits 
 [ch 11: page 411] (47 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE 
 [ch 12: page 412] (368 words)

Business transfers and outsourcing, and their effect on the employment relationship, are regulated by the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of ...
Subscribers only

Some key facts about TUPE 
 [ch 12: page 413] (406 words)

Relevant transfers
 [ch 12: pages 412-414] (171 words)

Business transfers 
 [ch 12: pages 414-415] (686 words)

Service provision changes 
 [ch 12: pages 415-418] (1,411 words)

Who belongs to the organised grouping
 [ch 12: pages 419-420] (1,025 words)

Service fragmentation 
 [ch 12: pages 421-422] (497 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change 
 [ch 12: page 422] (68 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration 
 [ch 12: pages 422-423] (546 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods 
 [ch 12: page 423] (177 words)

The transfer date
 [ch 12: page 424] (133 words)

Objecting to a transfer 
 [ch 12: page 424] (185 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change 
 [ch 12: pages 424-425] (280 words)

TUPE and changes in location
 [ch 12: page 425] (225 words)

Workforce reorganisation before a transfer 
 [ch 12: pages 425-427] (906 words)

The Retention of Employment Model 
 [ch 12: pages 427-428] (249 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE 
 [ch 12: page 428] (224 words)

Who has the right to be informed and consulted and when 
 [ch 12: pages 429-430] (552 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies 
 [ch 12: pages 430-431] (663 words)

What information must be provided to reps? 
 [ch 12: pages 431-432] (278 words)

Timescale for consultation under TUPE
 [ch 12: page 432] (66 words)

When should consultation start? 
 [ch 12: page 432] (172 words)

Enforcement - the protective award
 [ch 12: page 433] (232 words)

The “special circumstances” defence 
 [ch 12: page 433] (96 words)

Employee liability information 
 [ch 12: pages 433-434] (168 words)

Transfers within public administration 
 [ch 12: page 434] (278 words)

Public procurement
 [ch 12: pages 434-436] (592 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions 
 [ch 12: page 436] (290 words)

TUPE and pensions 
 [ch 12: pages 436-437] (118 words)

Early retirement benefits
 [ch 12: page 437] (344 words)

What pension obligations transfer under TUPE 
 [ch 12: pages 437-438] (405 words)

TUPE and Fair Deal for Pensions
 [ch 12: pages 438-439] (402 words)

TUPE and collective agreements 
 [ch 12: page 440] (81 words)

TUPE and trade union recognition 
 [ch 12: page 440] (62 words)

Changes to contract terms after a transfer 
 [ch 12: pages 440-441] (416 words)

Changes to terms incorporated from a collective agreement
 [ch 12: pages 441-442] (401 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining 
 [ch 12: pages 442-443] (526 words)

Express contract terms that permit change 
 [ch 12: page 443] (172 words)

Economic, technical or organisational reason entailing changes to the workforce 
 [ch 12: pages 443-445] (730 words)

Changes for a reason unconnected to the transfer 
 [ch 12: pages 445-446 ] (285 words)

How long are contract terms protected by TUPE? 
 [ch 12: page 446] (121 words)

TUPE protection against unfair dismissal 
 [ch 12: pages 446-447] (605 words)

Who should a claim be brought against? 
 [ch 12: page 447] (101 words)

What is the deadline for any claim? 
 [ch 12: page 447] (84 words)

TUPE and insolvency 
 [ch 12: page 448] (280 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency 
 [ch 12: pages 448-449] (196 words)

Winding up the business 
 [ch 12: page 449] (117 words)

Chapter 13

13. Bringing a tribunal claim
 [ch 13: page 450] (98 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing a claim in the employment tribunal and the main stages of the tribunal process. A new ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim
 [ch 13: page 450] (266 words)

Acas Early Conciliation 
 [ch 13: pages 450-452] (887 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas early conciliation 
 [ch 13: pages 452-453] (259 words)

Tribunal fees
 [ch 13: pages 453-454] (728 words)

Fee remission (Ministry of Justice ‘Help with Fees’ scheme)
 [ch 13: pages 454-455] (389 words)

Capital threshold
 [ch 13: page 455] (99 words)

Passported benefits
 [ch 13: page 455] (53 words)

Income threshold
 [ch 13: pages 455-456] (514 words)

Developments in the union campaign against tribunal fees
 [ch 13: page 456] (260 words)

The ET1 Claim Form 
 [ch 13: pages 457-458] (413 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim Form? 
 [ch 13: pages 458-459] (170 words)

Time limits 
 [ch 13: page 459] (278 words)

Initial consideration 
 [ch 13: page 459] (103 words)

Case management orders 
 [ch 13: page 460] (158 words)

Schedule of loss
 [ch 13: page 460] (105 words)

Chronology
 [ch 13: page 460] (28 words)

Preliminary hearings 
 [ch 13: pages 460-461] (464 words)

Unless Orders
 [ch 13: page 461] (167 words)

Exchange of documents 
 [ch 13: page 462] (276 words)

Fixing a date for the hearing 
 [ch 13: page 462] (87 words)

Postponement requests 
 [ch 13: pages 462-463] (309 words)

Witness statements
 [ch 13: page 463] (304 words)

The tribunal panel
 [ch 13: page 464] (253 words)

The main hearing 
 [ch 13: pages 464-465] (410 words)

Judgment — written reasons 
 [ch 13: page 465] (133 words)

Costs orders 
 [ch 13: pages 465-467] (730 words)

Enforcing tribunal awards and costs orders 
 [ch 13: page 467] (196 words)

Financial penalties for ‘aggravated breach’ 
 [ch 13: page 467] (79 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal 
 [ch 13: page 468] (386 words)

Employees working outside Great Britain
 [ch 13: pages 468-469] (105 words)

Settling a claim
 [ch 13: pages 469-470] (564 words)

‘Without prejudice’ discussions
 [ch 13: page 470] (124 words)

Protected conversations 
 [ch 13: pages 470-471] (542 words)

Improper behaviour 
 [ch 13: page 472] (130 words)

Mediation
 [ch 13: page 472] (90 words)

Further information

Further information
 [pages 473-474] (673 words)

Copies of relevant statutes can be obtained online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is available online from the Labour ...
Subscribers only