LRD Booklets May 2017

Law at Work 2017

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Introduction

Introduction 

 (973 words)

This 29th edition of Law at Work is being published at a time of significant political and economic uncertainty, following the UK’s vote on 23 June ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system
 [ch 1: page 17] (217 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

European Union law
 [ch 1: pages 17-20] (1,386 words)

Human rights law
 [ch 1: pages 21-22] (729 words)

The International Labour Organisation (ILO)
 [ch 1: pages 22-23] (122 words)

The employment tribunal system 

 [ch 1: pages 23-26] (1,253 words)

Personal injury claims
 [ch 1: pages 26-27] (700 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes

 [ch 1: page 28] (245 words)

Criminal law 

 [ch 1: page 28] (53 words)

Changes to employment regulation in Scotland 

 [ch 1: pages 28-29] (365 words)

Future shape of the employment tribunal system
 [ch 1: page 30-31] (605 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker 

 [ch 2: pages 32-36] (1,428 words)

Most statutory employment rights depend on someone’s “employment status”. In other words, they depend on whether that person is an ...
Subscribers only

The legal test – employee, worker or self-employed?
 [ch 2: pages 33-37] (339 words)

Mutuality of obligation
 [ch 2: page 37] (274 words)

Personal service

 [ch 2: pages 38-39] (676 words)

Degree of control

 [ch 2: page 39] (182 words)

Identifying bogus self-employment
 [ch 2: pages 39-45] (3,008 words)

HMRC rule changes to combat false self-employment
 [ch 2: pages 47-48] (190 words)

Umbrella companies

 [ch 2: pages 48-49] (500 words)

Personal service companies

 [ch 2: pages 49-50] (194 words)

Zero hours contract workers 

 [ch 2: pages 50-52] (1,366 words)

Part-time workers 

 [ch 2: pages 53-55] (1,285 words)

Homeworkers

 [ch 2: pages 55-56] (188 words)

Volunteers

 [ch 2: page 56] (166 words)

Interns

 [ch 2: pages 56-57] (313 words)

Young workers
 [ch 2: page 57] (200 words)

Apprentices
 [ch 2: pages 57-59] (865 words)

Children
 [ch 2: pages 59-60] (206 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees 

 [ch 2: pages 60-62] (1,222 words)

Agency workers

 [ch 2: pages 62-63] (202 words)

Rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010

 [ch 2: pages 63-65] (904 words)

Who is protected by the AWRs?
 [ch 2: pages 65-66] (322 words)

The Swedish derogation 

 [ch 2: pages 66-67] (450 words)

Rights under the Conduct of Employment Agencies Regulations

 [ch 2: pages 67-68] (370 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy

 [ch 2: pages 68-69] (268 words)

Crown employees 

 [ch 2: page 69] (95 words)

Employee shareholders 

 [ch 2: pages 69-70] (369 words)

Posted workers — the European Posting of Workers Directive

 [ch 2: page 70] (331 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract
 [ch 3: pages 71-73] (1,002 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work for the first time are likely to have references from ...
Subscribers only

What if an employer checks out a job applicant’s digital footprint? 

 [ch 3: page 73] (345 words)

The right to work in the UK 

 [ch 3: pages 74-75] (573 words)

The Modern Slavery Act 2015

 [ch 3: page 75] (154 words)

The Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority

 [ch 3: pages 75-76] (401 words)

Ban on pre-employment health checks 

 [ch 3: pages 76-77] (240 words)

Criminal convictions 

 [ch 3: pages 77-78] (508 words)

Jobs that require a DBS check

 [ch 3: pages 78-79] (665 words)

Ban on questions about pension opt-out during recruitment 

 [ch 3: page 79] (72 words)

The employment contract 

 [ch 3: page 80] (241 words)

Written statement of employment particulars 

 [ch 3: pages 80-82] (992 words)

Terms of the contract 

 [ch 3: page 82] (52 words)

Express terms 

 [ch 3: pages 83-86] (1,530 words)

Implied terms 

 [ch 3: pages 86-89] (1,599 words)

Works rules and collective agreements 

 [ch 3: pages 89-90] (573 words)

Is the collective term ‘apt’ for incorporation? 

 [ch 3: pages 91-93] (950 words)

Illegal contract terms 

 [ch 3: page 93] (278 words)

Restrictive covenants 

 [ch 3: pages 93-94] (247 words)

Contract changes 

 [ch 3: page 94] (343 words)

Express or implied agreement to change

 [ch 3: pages 95-96] (613 words)

Breach of contract 

 [ch 3: pages 96-97] (434 words)

Bringing a claim

 [ch 3: pages 97-98] (424 words)

Other remedies 

 [ch 3: page 98] (74 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions 

 [ch 4: page 99] (627 words)

Under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998, workers have the right to a minimum wage. The detail of national minimum wage law is found in regulations, ...
Subscribers only

Who is eligible for the national minimum wage

 [ch 4: pages 99-101] (257 words)

Agricultural workers

 [ch 4: pages 101-102] (437 words)

Excluded workers 

 [ch 4: page 102] (156 words)

How the national minimum wage is calculated 

 [ch 4: pages 102-103] (470 words)

Hourly-paid workers — time work

 [ch 4: pages 103-104] (346 words)

Time spent sleeping

 [ch 4: pages 104-105] (501 words)

Time spent travelling between assignments 

 [ch 4: page 105] (222 words)

Time spent travelling to and from the first
and last assignment of the day (mobile workers)
 [ch 4: page 106] (152 words)

Unmeasured work

 [ch 4: page 106] (332 words)

Tips 

 [ch 4: page 107] (94 words)

Piece workers (“output” work)
 [ch 4: page 107] (74 words)

Homeworkers

 [ch 4: page 107] (79 words)

Enforcement 

 [ch 4: page 108] (174 words)

HMRC recovery powers and penalties
 for employers who fail to pay NMW

 [ch 4: pages 108-109] (489 words)

Bringing an employment tribunal claim for the NMW

 [ch 4: page 109] (315 words)

NMW avoidance devices

 [ch 4: page 110] (119 words)

Pay slips and pay intervals 

 [ch 4: page 110] (148 words)

Deductions and underpayments 

 [ch 4: pages 110-113] (1,285 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions 

 [ch 4: pages 113-114] (499 words)

Guarantee pay (pay during lay-off or short-time working)
 [ch 4: pages 114-116] (931 words)

Paid medical suspension 

 [ch 4: pages 116-117] (181 words)

Paid maternity suspension 

 [ch 4: page 117] (397 words)

Overtime pay 

 [ch 4: page 118] (372 words)

Pensions
 [ch 4: pages 118-120] (582 words)

New state pension 

 [ch 4: page 120] (319 words)

Public sector pension changes

 [ch 4: pages 120-121] (330 words)

Working hours and breaks 

 [ch 4: pages 121-123] (639 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week 

 [ch 4: page 123] (205 words)

Rest breaks 

 [ch 4: pages 123-125] (898 words)

Daily and weekly rest breaks
 [ch 4: page ]125 (74 words)

Working time travelling to and from work (mobile workers)
 [ch 4: pages 125-126] (271 words)

Time “on-call”

 [ch 4: pages 126-127] (635 words)

Night workers 

 [ch 4: pages 127-128] (205 words)

Sunday working 

 [ch 4: page 128] (385 words)

Holidays and holiday pay 

 [ch 4: pages 129-133] (2,206 words)

Holidays and sickness absence 

 [ch 4: pages 133-134] (240 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness absence

 [ch 4: pages 134-135] (519 words)

Falling ill on holiday 

 [ch 4: page 135] (262 words)

Bank holidays 

 [ch 4: pages 135-136] (350 words)

Time off for public duties 

 [ch 4: pages 136-137] (270 words)

Time off for study or training 

 [ch 4: pages 137-138] (403 words)

Other statutory rights to time off 

 [ch 4: page 138] (58 words)

Whistleblowing
 [ch 4: pages 138-140] (1,089 words)

Data protection 

 [ch 4: pages 140-141] (420 words)

The Eight Data Protection Principles 

 [ch 4: pages 141-143] (580 words)

Data subject access requests
 [ch 4: page 143] (196 words)

Covert monitoring
 [ch 4: pages 143-144] (615 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation 

 [ch 5: page 145] (366 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), as amended. The ...
Subscribers only

Trade union rights are human rights 

 [ch 5: pages 145-147] (808 words)

Ban on inducements 

 [ch 5: pages 147-149] (868 words)

Closed shop
 [ch 5: page 148] (65 words)

Voluntary recognition of a trade union

 [ch 5: page 149] (341 words)

The statutory recognition procedure 

 [ch 5: pages 150-155] (1,776 words)

‘Representativity’

 [ch 5: page 155] (123 words)

Is it a trade union at all?
 [ch 5: page 155] (203 words)

The statutory recognition ballot 

 [ch 5: pages 156-158] (1,160 words)

Derecognition 

 [ch 5: pages 158-159] (333 words)

Territorial scope 

 [ch 5: page 159] (118 words)

Rights to time off [ch 5: pages 159-162] (1,326 words)

Unpaid time off for union activities

 [ch 5: page 162] (154 words)

Tribunal claims about time off rights

 [ch 5: pages 162-163] (231 words)

Government attacks on public sector facility time 

 [ch 5: pages 163-164] (665 words)

Rights to information for collective bargaining 

 [ch 5: pages 164-165] (498 words)

Protection of union members from victimisation 

 [ch 5: pages 166-169] (1,896 words)

Anti-union blacklisting 

 [ch 5: pages 170-173] (1,295 words)

Interim relief 

 [ch 5: pages 173-174] (520 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives 

 [ch 5: page 174] (93 words)

Employee reps and European Works Councils

 [ch 5: pages 174-175] (208 words)

National level information and consultation 

 [ch 5: pages 175-176] (528 words)

Internal union matters
 [ch 5: pages 176-177] (460 words)

Membership audit
 [ch 5: page 177] (233 words)

Changes to the role of the Certification Officer
 [ch 5: pages 178=179] (767 words)

Check-off arrangements 

 [ch 5: pages 179-180] (457 words)

Political funds

 [ch 5: pages 180-182] (724 words)

Chapter 6

6. Industrial action 

 [ch 6: pages 183-185] (867 words)

Strike laws in the United Kingdom are among the most restrictive in the developed world. On 1 March 2017, those laws became even more draconian, in ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike in the UK

 [ch 6: page 185] (361 words)

International criticism of the right to strike in the UK

 [ch 6: page 186] (203 words)

European Union law

 [ch 6: pages 186-187] (396 words)

UK industrial action law
 - the “immunities” [ch 6: page 187] (150 words)

Trade dispute 

 [ch 6: pages 188-189] (719 words)

Workplace reps 

 [ch 6: page 189] (143 words)

Official or unofficial action 

 [ch 6: pages 189-190] (571 words)

New annual reporting duty — industrial action 

 [ch 6: page 190-191] (184 words)

Balloting 

 [ch 6: page 191] (53 words)

Ballot thresholds

 [ch 6: pages 191-193] (981 words)

The ballot process

 [ch 6: pages 193-198] (2,255 words)

Limited life of ballot mandate
 [ch 6: page 199] (172 words)

Requirements to notify employers 

 [ch 6: pages 199-200] (621 words)

Balloting restrictions challenged in the ECHR

 [ch 6: pages 200-201] (287 words)

Ban on using agency workers to replace striking workers 

 [ch 6: page 201] (211 words)

Picketing 

 [ch 6: pages 201-202] (173 words)

Picket supervisor
 [ch 6: page 202] (268 words)

Letter of authorisation
 [ch 6: pages 202-204] (736 words)

Location of the picket
 [ch 6: pages 204-205] (759 words)

Criminal law

 [ch 6: pages 205-206] (213 words)

How the law aids employers 

 [ch 6: page 206] (83 words)

Injunctions 

 [ch 6: pages 206-207] (438 words)

Dismissal 

 [ch 6: page 207] (197 words)

Action short of dismissal 

 [ch 6: page 208] (88 words)

Deducting pay 

 [ch 6: pages 208-209] (509 words)

Lockouts 

 [ch 6: page 209] (195 words)

State benefits for strikers 

 [ch 6: pages 209-210] (242 words)

Chapter 7

7. Discrimination 

 [ch 7: page 211] (232 words)

The Equality Act 2010 (EA 10) became law on 8 April 2010. The EA 10 did not make many significant changes to existing equality laws, but it helpfully ...
Subscribers only

Tribunal fees 

 [ch 7: page 211] (155 words)

Acas Early Conciliation 

 [ch 7: pages 211-212] (65 words)

The protected characteristics 

 [ch 7: page 212] (158 words)

Age 

 [ch 7: pages 212-213] (284 words)

Disability 

 [ch 7: page 213] (226 words)

“Normal day-to-day activities”

 [ch 7: pages 213-214] (306 words)

Proving the existence of disability 

 [ch 7: pages 214-215] (400 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered 

 [ch 7: page 215] (86 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability 

 [ch 7: pages 215-216] (640 words)

Certain conditions are deemed a disability 

 [ch 7: page 216] (73 words)

Progressive conditions 

 [ch 7: page 217] (196 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment 

 [ch 7: page 217] (294 words)

Recurring conditions 

 [ch 7: page 218] (106 words)

Gender reassignment 

 [ch 7: pages 218-220] (652 words)

Marriage and civil partnership 

 [ch 7: page 220] (323 words)

Sexual orientation 

 [ch 7: page 221] (39 words)

Race 

 [ch 7: page 221] (266 words)

Caste 

 [ch 7: pages 221-222] (361 words)

Religion or belief 

 [ch 7: pages 222-224] (1,050 words)

Political belief 

 [ch 7: page 225] (219 words)

Pregnancy or maternity 

 [ch 7: pages 225-228] (963 words)

Surrogacy 

 [ch 7: page 228] (212 words)

IVF 

 [ch 7: page 228] (165 words)

Sex or gender 

 [ch 7: pages 228-229] (88 words)

Who is protected by the Equality Act 2010

 [ch 7: pages 229-230] (633 words)

Volunteers 

 [ch 7: page 230] (132 words)

Interns 

 [ch 7: page 231] (126 words)

Workers outside Great Britain 

 [ch 7: page 231] (81 words)

Seafarers and discrimination 

 [ch 7: page 231] (72 words)

Illegal workers and discrimination 

 [ch 7: pages 231-232] (339 words)

Conduct prohibited by the Equality Act 2010

 [ch 7: page 232] (88 words)

Direct discrimination 

 [ch 7: pages 232-234] (583 words)

Associative and perceptive discrimination 

 [ch 7: page 234] (420 words)

Less favourable treatment 

 [ch 7: pages 234-236] (486 words)

The need for a comparator 

 [ch 7: page 236] (307 words)

Detriment

 [ch 7: page 236] (103 words)

Is there a defence to direct discrimination? 

 [ch 7: pages 237-238] (504 words)

Exceptions to the definition of direct discrimination 

 [ch 7: page ] (209 words)

Indirect discrimination 

 [ch 7: pages 238-239] (584 words)

What is a provision, criterion or practice (PCP)? 

 [ch 7: page 240] (259 words)

Must you demonstrate disadvantage to a group of workers apart from just you? 

 [ch 7: page 240] (147 words)

Does it matter that you could have complied with the PCP if you wanted to? 

 [ch 7: page 240] (82 words)

Must you prove genuine disadvantage to you as a result of the PCP? 

 [ch 7: page 241] (79 words)

Must there be a comparator group? 

 [ch 7: page 241] (92 words)

Is there a defence to a claim for indirect discrimination? 

 [ch 7: pages 241-242] (481 words)

Harassment 

 [ch 7: pages 242-244] (848 words)

Sexual harassment 

 [ch 7: page 244] (253 words)

Associative and perceptive harassment 

 [ch 7: pages 245-246] (493 words)

Third party harassment 

 [ch 7: page 246] (270 words)

The employer’s duty to act 

 [ch 7: page 246] (71 words)

Other laws to combat harassment in the workplace 

 [ch 7: page 247] (146 words)

Victimisation 

 [ch 7: pages 247-249] (734 words)

The employer’s liability under the EA 10 

 [ch 7: page 249] (169 words)

The employer’s ‘reasonable steps’ defence 

 [ch 7: pages 249-250] (344 words)

Liability for harassment or discrimination outside work 

 [ch 7: page 250] (83 words)

Liability of employer for acts of non-employees

 [ch 7: pages 250-251] (323 words)

Reasonable adjustments and discrimination arising from disability 

 [ch 7: pages 251-252] (567 words)

Discrimination “arising from” disability 

 [ch 7: pages 252-253] (357 words)

The duty to make reasonable adjustments 

 [ch 7: pages 253-254] (542 words)

Auxiliary aids 

 [ch 7: page 254] (71 words)

Physical features 

 [ch 7: page 255] (79 words)

Substantial disadvantage 

 [ch 7: page 25] (24 words)

What is a “reasonable” adjustment?
 [ch 7: pages 255-256] (783 words)

Practical applications of discrimination law in the workplace 

 [ch 7: pages 257] (365 words)

Access to promotion and job changes 

 [ch 7: page 258] (118 words)

Voluntary positive action in recruitment and promotion 

 [ch 7: page 258] (162 words)

Terms and conditions 

 [ch 7: pages 258-259] (278 words)

Resisting discriminatory changes to terms and conditions 

 [ch 7: page 259] (212 words)

Dress codes 

 [ch 7: pages 259-261] (1,018 words)

Working hours and work organisation 

 [ch 7: pages 262-263] (726 words)

Language at work

 [ch 7: pages 263-265] (687 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures 

 [ch 7: pages 265-266] (380 words)

Dismissal 

 [ch 7: page 266] (158 words)

Redundancy 

 [ch 7: page 266] (28 words)

Retirement 

 [ch 7: pages 266-267] (786 words)

Equal pay 

 [ch 7: pages 268-269] (328 words)

Sex equality clause 

 [ch 7: page 269] (99 words)

What terms are covered by the sex equality clause? 

 [ch 7: pages 269-270] (290 words)

What is equal work? 

 [ch 7: page 270] (530 words)

Who can an employee compare herself with? 

 [ch 7: pages 270-272] (516 words)

What does “in the same employment” mean? 

 [ch 7: page 272] (231 words)

The ‘genuine material factor’ defence 

 [ch 7: pages 273-274] (736 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay 

 [ch 7: pages 274-275] (357 words)

Part-time work and equal pay 

 [ch 7: page 275] (176 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay 

 [ch 7: page 275] (54 words)

Length of service 

 [ch 7: page 275] (34 words)

Time limits 

 [ch 7: pages 275-276] (227 words)

What can be claimed? 

 [ch 7: page 276] (46 words)

Pay transparency and equal pay audits 

 [ch 7: pages 276-277] (407 words)

Compulsory gender pay-gap reporting

 [ch 7: pages 277-278] (569 words)

Employers urged to publish race pay gap data
 [ch 7: page 279] (117 words)

Asking questions about pay
 [ch 7: page 279] (236 words)

Contract terms that demand “pay secrecy”
 [ch 7: page 280] (112 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty 

 [ch 7: pages 280-281] (546 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim

 [ch 7: page 281] (117 words)

Written grievance

 [ch 7: pages 281-282] (206 words)

Asking an employer questions about suspected discrimination 

 [ch 7: page 282] (224 words)

Proving discrimination — the ‘burden of proof’

 [ch 7: page 283] (310 words)

Time limits

 [ch 7: page 283] (146 words)

Continuing discrimination 

 [ch 7: page 284] (400 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim 

 [ch 7: page 285] (253 words)

Length of service 

 [ch 7: page 285] (29 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers 

 [ch 7: page 285] (111 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers 

 [ch 7: page 285] (32 words)

Power to make recommendations 

 [ch 7: page 286] (246 words)

Compensation 

 [ch 7: pages 286-288] (1,009 words)

Chapter 8

8. Sick pay and sickness absence 

 [ch 8: page 289] (349 words)

An employer must provide employees with details of their sick pay entitlement as part of the written statement of employment particulars within two ...
Subscribers only

Eligibility for SSP 

 [ch 8: page 289] (125 words)

Rules about notifying the employer 

 [ch 8: page 290] (91 words)

Claiming SSP 

 [ch 8: page 290] (48 words)

The Fit Note 

 [ch 8: page 290] (258 words)

The purpose of the Fit Note 

 [ch 8: pages 290-291] (494 words)

The Fit for Work Service 

 [ch 8: pages 291-293] (1,018 words)

Occupational sick pay 

 [ch 8: pages 294-295] (889 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay 

 [ch 8: pages 295-298] (1,193 words)

Disability and sick pay 

 [ch 8: page 298] (95 words)

Phased returns and sick pay 

 [ch 8: page 298] (211 words)

Pregnancy, IVF and sick pay 

 [ch 8: page 299] (163 words)

Sick leave
 [ch 8: pages 299-300] (450 words)

Sickness absence and holiday 

 [ch 8: page 300] (30 words)

Absence management procedures 

 [ch 8: pages 300-301] (209 words)

Equality issues in absence management procedures

 [ch 8: pages 301-302] (591 words)

Sickness absence dismissals and disability discrimination 

 [ch 8: pages 302-304] (780 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness absence 

 [ch 8: page 304] (398 words)

Sickness absence and unfair dismissal law
 [ch 8: page 305] (42 words)

Long-term sickness absence

 [ch 8: pages 305-309] (1,901 words)

Dismissal due to a poor attendance record 

 [ch 8: pages 309-311] (696 words)

Sickness absence and ‘frustration of contract’ 

 [ch 8: pages 311-312] (218 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period 

 [ch 8: page 312] (104 words)

Sickness absence and strike action 

 [ch 8: page 312] (225 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection 

 [ch 8: page 312] (123 words)

The HSE Management Standards
 [ch 8: page 313] (144 words)

Medical reports and the law 

 [ch 8: pages 313-314] (363 words)

Pre-employment health checks 

 [ch 8: page 314] (66 words)

Chapter 9

9. Rights to time off work for working parents and carers 

 [ch 9: page 315] (123 words)

This chapter sets out the rights available to working parents and carers. 

 ...
Subscribers only

Minimum statutory rights to leave 

 [ch 9: page 315] (133 words)

Protection from detriment or dismissal 

 [ch 9: page 315] (161 words)

Rights to time off for antenatal care

 [ch 9: page 316] (202 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments

 [ch 9: page 316] (221 words)

Time off rights for prospective adopters

 [ch 9: page 317] (180 words)

Is there a right to time off for IVF appointments? 

 [ch 9: page 317] (242 words)

Enforcing rights to time off 

 [ch 9: page 318] (137 words)

Who is eligible for statutory maternity leave 

 [ch 9: page 318] (102 words)

Who is eligible for statutory adoption leave
 [ch 9: page 318] (111 words)

The key elements of statutory maternity leave 

 [ch 9: page 318] (83 words)

The key elements of statutory adoption leave
 [ch 9: page 319] (54 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave 

 [ch 9: page 319] (213 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave 

 [ch 9: page 319] (122 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date 

 [ch 9: page 320] (76 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date 

 [ch 9: page 320] (46 words)

Returning to work early 

 [ch 9: page 320] (44 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave
 [ch 9: page 320] (137 words)

Who is eligible for shared parental leave (SPL)

 [ch 9: pages 320-321] (455 words)

The key elements of Shared Parental Leave

 [ch 9: page 322] (211 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave 

 [ch 9: page 322] (139 words)

Can a mother change her mind?
 [ch 9: pages 322-323] (145 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL

 [ch 9: page 323] (294 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave

 [ch 9: page 324] (118 words)

Is SPL suitable?
 [ch 9: page 324] (262 words)

Rights during statutory maternity, adoption, paternity and shared parental leave

 [ch 9: page 325] (175 words)

Pension contributions 

 [ch 9: page 325] (69 words)

Contact between employer and employee during leave

 [ch 9: page 325] (180 words)

Keeping in Touch (KIT and SPLIT) days 

 [ch 9: page 326] (274 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave 

 [ch 9: page 326] (106 words)

Who qualifies for OPL 

 [ch 9: pages 326-327] (98 words)

Notifying intention to claim OPL 

 [ch 9: page 327] (101 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave

 [ch 9: page 327] (257 words)

Returning to work 

 [ch 9: pages 327-328] (558 words)

Statutory Maternity Pay

 [ch 9: page 329] (100 words)

How much is SMP? 

 [ch 9: page 329] (234 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) 

 [ch 9: pages 329-330] (156 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay 

 [ch 9: page 330] (80 words)

How much is SAP?
 [ch 9: page 330] (44 words)

Statutory Paternity Pay 

 [ch 9: page 330] (41 words)

Statutory Shared Parental Pay 

 [ch 9: pages 330-331] (188 words)

Contractual maternity or adoption pay 

 [ch 9: page 331] (112 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay 

 [ch 9: page 331] (119 words)

Right to paid maternity suspension — pregnancy and childbirth 

 [ch 9: page 331] (84 words)

Breastfeeding at work 

 [ch 9: pages 331-332] (611 words)

Unpaid parental leave 

 [ch 9: pages 332-334] (443 words)

Leave for family emergencies 

 [ch 9: pages 334-335] (467 words)

The right to request flexible working 

 [ch 9: pages 335-336] (377 words)

The employee’s request

 [ch 9: pages 336-337] (256 words)

The employer’s response 

 [ch 9: page 337] (256 words)

The employer’s decision

 [ch 9: pages 337-340] (1,129 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 341] (574 words)

To bring a claim for unfair dismissal you must: 

 ...
Subscribers only

What is a dismissal? 

 [ch 10: pages 341-343] (648 words)

Resignation 

 [ch 10: pages 344-345] (597 words)

Notice
 [ch 10: page 345] (82 words)

When employers give notice

 [ch 10: page 345] (273 words)

Payment in lieu of notice 

 [ch 10: page 346] (310 words)

When employees give notice

 [ch 10: pages 346-347] (330 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence 

 [ch 10: page 347] (73 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract 

 [ch 10: page 347] (71 words)

Constructive dismissal 

 [ch 10: pages 347-348] (144 words)

Fundamental contract breach

 [ch 10: pages 348-349] (479 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach

 [ch 10: page 349] (110 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach

 [ch 10: pages 349-351] (794 words)

Grievance 

 [ch 10: pages 351-352] (518 words)

Last straw cases

 [ch 10: page 352-354] (129 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks

 [ch 10: page 353] (489 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair

 [ch 10: page 354] (216 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 354] (95 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable? 

 [ch 10: pages 354-355] (114 words)

The band of reasonable responses

 [ch 10: page 355] (248 words)

The importance of consistency

 [ch 10: pages 355-356] (260 words)

A fair procedure

 [ch 10: pages 356-358] (814 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 358] (152 words)

Warnings 

 [ch 10: pages 358-359] (516 words)

Lapsed warnings 

 [ch 10: page 360] (267 words)

Appeals

 [ch 10: pages 360-361] (327 words)

Capability dismissals 

 [ch 10: page 361] (280 words)

Conduct dismissals

 [ch 10: pages 362-363] (736 words)

Conduct outside work 

 [ch 10: pages 363-364] (164 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence

 [ch 10: page 364] (93 words)

Gross misconduct 

 [ch 10: pages 364-365] (405 words)

Redundancy 

 [ch 10: page 365] (84 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction 

 [ch 10: page 365] (63 words)

Loss of driving licence

 [ch 10: pages 365-366] (102 words)

Immigration status 

 [ch 10: page 366] (106 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason 

 [ch 10: page 366] (162 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree changes to terms and conditions 

 [ch 10: pages 366-368] (963 words)

Dismissals due to a breakdown in trust and confidence 

 [ch 10: page 368] (127 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure 

 [ch 10: page 369] (133 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant

 [ch 10: page 369] (72 words)

Dismissal for manifesting extreme and offensive political opinions 

 [ch 10: page 369] (151 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder

 [ch 10: pages 369-370] (110 words)

Dismissal due to ending and non-renewal of a fixed-term contract

 [ch 10: page 370] (83 words)

Retirement no longer a fair reason for dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 370] (101 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 370] (86 words)

Dismissal and pregnancy and other parental rights 

 [ch 10: pages 370-371] (276 words)

Dismissals and business transfers 

 [ch 10: page 371] (82 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership 

 [ch 10: pages 371-372] (371 words)

Dismissals and union recognition 

 [ch 10: page 372] (28 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting 

 [ch 10: page 372] (36 words)

Dismissals and representation rights 

 [ch 10: page 372] (36 words)

Dismissal and industrial action 

 [ch 10: pages 372-374] (600 words)

Dismissal for enforcing a statutory right 

 [ch 10: page 374] (147 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions 

 [ch 10: page 374] (106 words)

Dismissal of part-time or fixed-term employees 

 [ch 10: page 374] (27 words)

Dismissal of employed agency workers 

 [ch 10: page 374] (30 words)

Dismissal of zero hours contract workers

 [ch 10: page 374] (63 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety 

 [ch 10: page 375] (281 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays 

 [ch 10: page 375] (33 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees 

 [ch 10: page 375] (60 words)

Pension auto-enrolment 

 [ch 10: page 375] (38 words)

National minimum wage and working time rights 

 [ch 10: page 376] (33 words)

Dismissal for whistleblowing 

 [ch 10: page 376] (33 words)

The effective date of termination 

 [ch 10: pages 376-378] (983 words)

Acas Early Conciliation (EC)
 [ch 10: page 378] (89 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim 

 [ch 10: pages 378-380] (811 words)

Continuous employment 

 [ch 10: page 380] (337 words)

The statutory rules on service continuity

 [ch 10: pages 381-382] (791 words)

The effect of illegality on unfair dismissal rights 

 [ch 10: page 382] (176 words)

Remedies - reinstatement or re-engagement

 [ch 10: pages 383-384] (551 words)

Compensation 

 [ch 10: page 384] (74 words)

The basic award 

 [ch 10: pages 384-385] (348 words)

The compensatory award 

 [ch 10: page 385] (191 words)

The compensatory award — what can be claimed 

 [ch 10: pages 386-387] (500 words)

Mitigating losses 

 [ch 10: pages 387-388] (638 words)

Contributory fault 

 [ch 10: page 388] (252 words)

Other deductions and adjustments 

 [ch 10: page 389] (266 words)

The statutory cap 

 [ch 10: page 389] (171 words)

The additional award 

 [ch 10: page 390] (94 words)

Interest and tax 

 [ch 10: page 390] (179 words)

Insolvency 

 [ch 10: pages 390-391] (237 words)

Wrongful dismissal 

 [ch 10: page 391] (192 words)

The statutory right to be accompanied 

 [ch 10: pages 391-394] (1,355 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy
 [ch 11: page 395] (430 words)

Not every situation in which employees lose their job through no fault of their own is covered by redundancy law and confusingly, “redundancy” ...
Subscribers only

What if there is less work (and fewer hours) 
but no cut in headcount? 

 [ch 11: pages 396-397] (704 words)

Relocation redundancy 

 [ch 11: pages 397-398] (633 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties 

 [ch 11: pages 398-400] (599 words)

Has there been a dismissal? 

 [ch 11: page 400] (121 words)

Voluntary redundancy 

 [ch 11: pages 400-401] (387 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 

 [ch 11: pages 401-402] (539 words)

Notice 

 [ch 11: pages 402-403] (318 words)

Collective redundancy consultation 

 [ch 11: pages 403-404] (533 words)

The duty to provide information to reps 

 [ch 11: page 404] (238 words)

Collective consultation, data protection and confidentiality 

 [ch 11: page 405] (147 words)

Consultation must be in good time

 [ch 11: pages 405-406] (530 words)

When does consultation end? 

 [ch 11: pages 406-407] (276 words)

Calculating the number of employees

 [ch 11: page 407] (270 words)

Significant changes to terms and conditions 

 [ch 11: pages 407-408] (200 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts 

 [ch 11: pages 408-409] (373 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation 

 [ch 11: page 409] (81 words)

Who should be consulted 

 [ch 11: pages 409-410] (721 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training 

 [ch 11: page 411] (116 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BEIS 

 [ch 11: page 411] (108 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation 

 [ch 11: pages 411-412] (582 words)

Remedies for failure to consult collectively
 — protective award 

 [ch 11: page 413] (196 words)

Calculating the protective award 

 [ch 11: page 413] (247 words)

The “special circumstances” defence 

 [ch 11: pages 414-415] (642 words)

Selection for redundancy 

 [ch 11: pages 415-416] (642 words)

Deciding on the selection pool 

 [ch 11: pages 416-417] (306 words)

Selection criteria and methods 

 [ch 11: pages 417-418] (326 words)

Disability 

 [ch 11: pages 418-419] (494 words)

Age 

 [ch 11: page 419] (117 words)

Last in, first out
 [ch 11: pages 419-420] (236 words)

Trade union membership and activities 

 [ch 11: page 420] (309 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination 

 [ch 11: page 421] (182 words)

Selection for redundancy during maternity leave
 [ch 11: pages 421-422] (719 words)

Part-time and fixed-term employees
 [ch 11: page 422] (146 words)

Apprentices 

 [ch 11: pages 423-424] (319 words)

Individual redundancy consultation 

 [ch 11: pages 424-425] (691 words)

Alternative work 

 [ch 11: pages 426-428] (1,111 words)

The statutory trial period 

 [ch 11: page 428] (224 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available vacancy 

 [ch 11: pages 429-431] (1,083 words)

Looking for work 

 [ch 11: page 431] (132 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy 

 [ch 11: pages 431-433] (574 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals 

 [ch 11: pages 433-434] (469 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights 

 [ch 11: page 434] (102 words)

Statutory redundancy pay 

 [ch 11: pages 434-435] (367 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay 

 [ch 11: page 435] (23 words)

Proving a contractual right to redundancy pay
 [ch 11: pages 435-438] (1,189 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination 

 [ch 11: page 438] (179 words)

Public sector redundancy pay

 [ch 11: pages 438-439] (143 words)

“Claw-back” of exit payments

 [ch 11: page 439-440] (438 words)

Cap on public sector exit payments

 [ch 11: pages 440-441] (856 words)

Redundancy payments and tax 

 [ch 11: page 442] (112 words)

Redundancy pay linked to lay-off and short time working 

 [ch 11: pages 442-443] (485 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency 

 [ch 11: pages 444-445] (676 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE 

 [ch 12: pages 446-448] (780 words)

Business transfers and outsourcing, and their effect on the employment relationship, are regulated by the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of ...
Subscribers only

Relevant transfers

 [ch 12: page 448] (171 words)

Business transfers 

 [ch 12: pages 448-450] (841 words)

Service provision changes 

 [ch 12: pages 450-451] (378 words)

No change in commissioning client
 [ch 12: pages 451-452] (453 words)

Similarity of activities
 [ch 12: pages 452-453] (653 words)

Organised grouping of employees
 [ch 12: pages 453-455] (690 words)

Who transfers?
 [ch 12: pages 455-457] (867 words)

What if you are temporarily assigned?
 [ch 12: pages 457-458] (543 words)

Transfers to more than one transferee
 [ch 12: pages 458-459] (270 words)

Service fragmentation
 [ch 12: page 459] (384 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change 

 [ch 12: page 460] (68 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration 

 [ch 12: pages 460-461] (527 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods 

 [ch 12: page 461] (179 words)

The transfer date

 [ch 12: pages 461-462] (132 words)

Objecting to a transfer 

 [ch 12: page 462] (413 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change 

 [ch 12: pages 462-463] (302 words)

TUPE and changes in location

 [ch 12: page 463] (198 words)

Workforce reorganisation before a transfer 

 [ch 12: pages 463-465] (920 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE 

 [ch 12: pages 465-466] (245 words)

Who has the right to be informed and consulted and when 

 [ch 12: pages 467-468] (547 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies 

 [ch 12: pages 468-469] (679 words)

What information must be provided to reps? 

 [ch 12: pages 469-470] (278 words)

Timescale for consultation under TUPE

 [ch 12: page 470] (59 words)

When should consultation start? 

 [ch 12: pages 470-471] (172 words)

Enforcement – the protective award

 [ch 12: page 471] (238 words)

The special circumstances defence 

 [ch 12: page 471] (98 words)

Employee liability information 

 [ch 12: page 471-472] (167 words)

Transfers within public administration 

 [ch 12: page 472] (276 words)

The return of the two-tier workforce 

 [ch 12: page 473] (460 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions 

 [ch 12: page 474] (293 words)

TUPE and pensions 

 [ch 12: page 474] (125 words)

Early retirement benefits

 [ch 12: page 475] (337 words)

What pension obligations transfer?
 [ch 12: pages 475-476] (372 words)

Fair Deal for Pensions

 [ch 12: pages 476-477] (424 words)

TUPE and collective agreements 

 [ch 12: page 477] (64 words)

TUPE and trade union recognition 

 [ch 12: page 478] (62 words)

Changes to contract terms after a transfer 

 [ch 12: page 478] (85 words)

Changes to individual contract terms
 [ch 12: pages 478-479] (452 words)

Economic, technical or organisational reason entailing changes to the workforce 

 [ch 12: pages 479-480] (580 words)

Express contract terms that permit change 

 [ch 12: page 480] (172 words)

Changes to terms incorporated from a collective agreement

 [ch 12: page 481] (354 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining 

 [ch 12: pages 481-483] (752 words)

Changes for a reason unconnected to the transfer 

 [ch 12: pages 483-484] (203 words)

How long are contract terms protected by TUPE? 

 [ch 12: page 484] (128 words)

TUPE protection against unfair dismissal 

 [ch 12: pages 484-485] (691 words)

Who should a claim be brought against? 

 [ch 12: page 486] (97 words)

What is the deadline for any claim? 

 [ch 12: page 486] (96 words)

TUPE and insolvency 

 [ch 12: pages 486-487] (280 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency 

 [ch 12: page 487] (196 words)

Winding up the business 

 [ch 12: page 487] (117 words)

Chapter 13

13. Bringing a tribunal claim

 [ch 13: page 488] (33 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing a claim in the employment tribunal and the main stages of the tribunal process. 

 ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim

 [ch 13: page 488] (320 words)

Acas Early Conciliation 

 [ch 13: pages 488-491] (1,151 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas Early Conciliation 

 [ch 13: page 491] (308 words)

Tribunal fees

 [ch 13: pages 492-493] (565 words)

Fee remission – HMTCS “Help with fees” scheme

 [ch 13: page 493] (529 words)

Capital threshold

 [ch 13: page 494] (155 words)

Passported benefits

 [ch 13: page 494] (56 words)

Income threshold

 [ch 13: pages 494-496] (511 words)

The ET1 Claim Form 

 [ch 13: pages 496-497] (448 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim Form? 

 [ch 13: page 497] (225 words)

Time limits 

 [ch 13: pages 497-498] (279 words)

Initial consideration 

 [ch 13: page 498] (103 words)

Case management orders 

 [ch 13: page 498] (200 words)

Judicial Assessment
 [ch 13: page 499] (202 words)

Schedule of loss

 [ch 13: page 499] (102 words)

Chronology

 [ch 13: page 499] (28 words)

Preliminary hearings 

 [ch 13: pages 499-500] (213 words)

Deposit order
 [ch 13: page 500] (184 words)

Striking out
 [ch 13: page ] (187 words)

Unless Orders

 [ch 13: page 501] (129 words)

Exchange of documents 

 [ch 13: page 501] (287 words)

Fixing a date for the hearing 

 [ch 13: pages 501-502] (87 words)

Postponement requests 

 [ch 13: page 502] (268 words)

Witness statements

 [ch 13: pages 502-503] (302 words)

The tribunal panel

 [ch 13: page 503] (219 words)

The main hearing 

 [ch 13: pages 503-504] (407 words)

Judgment — written reasons 

 [ch 13: page 504] (194 words)

Costs orders 

 [ch 13: pages 504-507] (909 words)

Enforcing tribunal awards and costs orders 

 [ch 13: page 508] (230 words)

Financial penalties for ‘aggravated breach’ 

 [ch 13: page 507] (89 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal 

 [ch 13: pages 507-508] (501 words)

Employees working outside Great Britain

 [ch 13: page 509] (103 words)

Settling a claim

 [ch 13: pages 509-510] (577 words)

“Without prejudice” discussions

 [ch 13: page 510] (129 words)

Protected conversations
 [ch 13: pages 510-512] (557 words)

Improper behaviour 

 [ch 13: page 512] (130 words)

Mediation

 [ch 13: page 512] (90 words)

Reform plans 
 [ch 13: page 512] (35 words)

Further information

Further Information [pages 513-514 (809 words)

Copies of relevant statutes and regulations are available online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is published on the ...
Subscribers only