LRD Booklets July 2021

Law at work 2021 - the trade union guide to employment law

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Introduction

Introduction [pages 15-16] (1,028 words)

This 33rd edition of Law at Work is published as the UK is beginning to emerge from the worst effects of the COVID pandemic and the economy begins to ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. The employment law system [ch 1: page 18] (216 words)

Employment rights in the UK have two main sources. The first is legislation enacted by Parliament in the form of Acts of Parliament or regulations. ...
Subscribers only

Brexit and employment rights [ch 1: pages 18-19] (687 words)

Impact of EU law on UK employment rights [ch 1: pages 20-22] (893 words)

Human rights law [ch 1: pages 22-23] (726 words)

The International Labour Organisation (ILO) [ch 1: pages 23-24] (101 words)

The employment tribunal system [ch 1: pages 24-25] (896 words)

Personal injury claims [ch 1: page 26] (344 words)

Personal injury claims in the small claims court [ch 1: pages 26-27] (449 words)

Regulatory enforcement regimes [ch 1: pages 28-29] (442 words)

Modern slavery [ch 1: page 29] (174 words)

The Gangmasters and Labour Abuse Authority [ch 1: pages 29-30] (242 words)

Criminal law [ch 1: page 30] (47 words)

Employment regulation in Scotland [ch 1: pages 30-31] (281 words)

Key employment law differences in Northern Ireland [ch 1: pages 31-32] (407 words)

Key employment law differences in Wales [ch 1: page 32] (187 words)

Chapter 2

2. Categories of worker [ch 2: pages 33-36] (1,282 words)

This Chapter summarises the tests used to establish employment status and explains how they are applied by employment tribunals (ETs) to different ...
Subscribers only

Employee, worker or self-employed [ch 2: pages 36-38] (862 words)

Mutuality of obligation [ch 2: pages 38-39] (501 words)

Personal service [ch 2: pages 39-40] (361 words)

Degree of control [ch 2: page 40] (144 words)

Health and safety in the gig economy [ch 2: page 41] (380 words)

Genuine self-employment [ch 2: pages 42-43] (460 words)

Challenging bogus self-employment [ch 2: pages 43-44] (845 words)

Checklist: Are you really self-employed? [ch 2: pages 44-45] (317 words)

Zero hours contract workers [ch 2: pages 45-47] (980 words)

Part-time workers [ch 2: pages 47-50] (1,458 words)

Homeworkers [ch 2: page 51] (43 words)

Volunteers [ch 2: page 51] (186 words)

Interns [ch 2: pages 51-52] (280 words)

Apprentices [ch 2: pages 52-54] (869 words)

Traineeships [ch 2: page 54] (138 words)

Children [ch 2: page 55] (203 words)

Temporary (fixed-term) employees [ch 2: pages 55-57] (857 words)

Agency workers [ch 2: pages 57-58] (292 words)

Additional rights under the Agency Workers Regulations 2010 [ch 2: pages 58-60] (963 words)

Pregnancy rights for agency workers [ch 2: pages 60-61] (441 words)

Who is protected by the AWR [ch 2: pages 61-62] (278 words)

Abolition of the Swedish derogation [ch 2: page 62] (288 words)

The Conduct of Employment Agencies Regulations [ch 2: pages 62-63] (183 words)

Key Information Document [ch 2: pages 63-64] (476 words)

Ban on replacing striking workers [ch 2: page 64] (37 words)

No rights to claim unfair dismissal or redundancy [ch 2: pages 64-65] (298 words)

Umbrella companies [ch 2: pages 65-66] (555 words)

Personal service companies [ch 2: pages 66-67] (350 words)

Chapter 3

3. Starting work and the employment contract [ch 3: pages 68-70] (1,059 words)

Most employers require a reference before they will employ someone. Young workers starting work are likely to have references from school or college, ...
Subscribers only

Checking a job applicant’s digital footprint [ch 3: page 70] (172 words)

The right to work in the UK [ch 3: pages 70-71] (686 words)

Health checks [ch 3: page 72] (263 words)

Vaccination in the workplace [ch 3: pages 72-74] (812 words)

Criminal convictions [ch 3: pages 74-75] (479 words)

Criminal records checks [ch 3: pages 75-77] (758 words)

The employment contract [ch 3: pages 77-78] (274 words)

Written statement of employment particulars [ch 3: pages 78-81] (1,421 words)

Terms of the contract [ch 3: page 81] (52 words)

Express contract terms [ch 3: pages 81-85] (1,871 words)

Implied terms [ch 3: pages 85-89] (1,903 words)

Collective terms [ch 3: pages 89-90] (302 words)

Incorporation of collective terms [ch 3: pages 90-93] (1,641 words)

Illegal contract terms [ch 3: page 94] (307 words)

Restrictive covenants [ch 3: pages 94-95] (259 words)

Contract changes [ch 3: pages 95-98] (1,401 words)

Breach of contract [ch 3: pages 98-99] (446 words)

Bringing a claim [ch 3: page 99] (322 words)

Chapter 4

4. Rights to pay and conditions [ch 4: pages 100-101] (456 words)

Workers have the right to a minimum wage under the National Minimum Wage Act 1998 (NMWA). The detail is set out in the National Minimum Wage ...
Subscribers only

Who is eligible for the National Minimum Wage [ch 4: page 101] (276 words)

Agricultural workers [ch 4: pages 101-102] (276 words)

Excluded workers [ch 4: pages 102-103] (230 words)

Calculating the National Minimum Wage [ch 4: pages 103-104] (399 words)

What pay counts towards the NMW [ch 4: pages 104-106] (1,195 words)

Hourly-paid workers [ch 4: page 107] (286 words)

Time spent sleeping for hourly-paid workers [ch 4: pages 107-109] (704 words)

Time spent travelling between assignments [ch 4: pages 109-110] (427 words)

Mobile workers travelling to and from first and last assignment [ch 4: page 110] (152 words)

Unmeasured work and daily average agreements [ch 4: pages 110-111] (403 words)

Piece workers (‘output’ work) [ch 4: page 111] (147 words)

Homeworkers [ch 4: pages 111-112] (102 words)

Records [ch 4: page 112] (293 words)

NMW regulatory enforcement regime [ch 4: pages 112-113] (385 words)

Bringing an ET claim for the NMW [ch 4: pages 113-114] (283 words)

Pay slips and pay intervals [ch 4: pages 114-115] (303 words)

Deductions and underpayments [ch 4: pages 115-117] (1,141 words)

Overpayments and other exceptions [ch 4: pages 117-118] (501 words)

Guarantee pay (pay during lay-off or short-time working) [ch 4: pages 118-120] (814 words)

Paid medical suspension [ch 4: page 120] (112 words)

Overtime pay [ch 4: pages 120-121] (328 words)

Pensions [ch 4: page 121] (28 words)

Pensions auto-enrolment [ch 4: pages 121-123] (647 words)

New state pension [ch 4: page 123] (231 words)

Public sector pension changes [ch 4: pages 123-124] (139 words)

Working hours and breaks [ch 4: page 124] (228 words)

Health and safety purpose [ch 4: page 124] (56 words)

Who is protected [ch 4: page 125] (74 words)

48-hour week [ch 4: page 125] (191 words)

Opting out of the 48-hour week [ch 4: pages 125-126] (201 words)

Working time [ch 4: page 126] (333 words)

Rest breaks [ch 4: pages 126-128] (607 words)

Daily and weekly rest periods [ch 4: page 128] (260 words)

Travelling to and from work (mobile workers) [ch 4: pages 128-129] (270 words)

Time “on call” [ch 4: pages 129-130] (613 words)

Nightworkers [ch 4: pages 130-131] (592 words)

Nightwork and pregnancy [ch 4: page 132] (217 words)

Holidays and holiday pay [ch 4: pages 132-134] (938 words)

Calculating holiday pay [ch 4: pages 135-137] (1,110 words)

Notice of holiday [ch 4: pages 137-138] (336 words)

Holidays and sickness absence [ch 4: page 138] (205 words)

Carrying forward unused holiday after sickness [ch 4: pages 138-139] (340 words)

Falling ill on holiday [ch 4: page 139] (146 words)

Protection from automatically unfair dismissal or detriment [ch 4: pages 139-140] (174 words)

WTR record keeping [ch 4: page 140] (226 words)

Contractual holiday rights [ch 4: page 140] (80 words)

Bank holidays [ch 4: pages 140-141] (199 words)

Sunday working [ch 4: page 141] (293 words)

Time off for public duties [ch 4: page 142] (248 words)

Time off for study or training [ch 4: pages 142-143] (395 words)

Time off for young persons to study or train [ch 4: page 143] (118 words)

Other statutory rights to time off [ch 4: page 143] (55 words)

Chapter 5

5. Union and collective organisation [ch 5: pages 144-145] (501 words)

Most union and collective organisation rights are found in the Trade Union and Labour Relations (Consolidation) Act 1992 (TULRCA), as amended. In ...
Subscribers only

Trade union rights are human rights [ch 5: pages 145-146] (730 words)

Outlawing of closed shop [ch 5: page 147] (56 words)

Voluntary recognition of a trade union [ch 5: page 147] (133 words)

Statutory recognition [ch 5: page 147] (196 words)

Accessing the statutory recognition procedure [ch 5: pages 148-150] (1,373 words)

Making an application for statutory recognition [ch 5: page 150] (57 words)

The bargaining unit [ch 5: pages 150-151] (181 words)

Initial threshold of support [ch 5: page 151] (199 words)

The statutory recognition ballot [ch 5: pages 151-152] (515 words)

The bargaining agenda [ch 5: pages 152-153] (378 words)

Derecognition [ch 5: pages 153-156] (1,222 words)

Ban on offers intended to end collective bargaining [ch 5: pages 156-158] (1,036 words)

Paid time off for union duties [ch 5: pages 159-162] (1,367 words)

Unpaid time off for union activities [ch 5: page 162] (130 words)

Time off for representation duties [ch 5: page 162] (82 words)

Standard of care [ch 5: pages 162-163] (178 words)

Tribunal claims about time off rights [ch 5: page 163] (95 words)

Regulation of public sector facility time [ch 5: pages 163-165] (990 words)

Rights to information for collective bargaining [ch 5: pages 165-166] (476 words)

Protection of union members from unfavourable treatment [ch 5: pages 166-171] (2,118 words)

Anti-union blacklisting [ch 5: pages 171-173] (914 words)

Blacklisting and the undercover policing inquiry [ch 5: pages 173-174] (360 words)

Interim relief [ch 5: page 174] (83 words)

Disciplinary action against union representatives [ch 5: page 174] (91 words)

European Works Councils [ch 5: pages 174-175] (180 words)

National level information and consultation [ch 5: pages 175-176] (612 words)

Internal union matters [ch 5: pages 176-178] (544 words)

Membership audit [ch 5: page 178] (141 words)

Certification Officer [ch 5: pages 178-179] (495 words)

Industrial action return [ch 5: page 179] (79 words)

Check-off arrangements [ch 5: pages 179-180] (385 words)

Political funds [ch 5: pages 180-182] (682 words)

Data protection [ch 5: page 182] (39 words)

Chapter 6

6. Industrial action [ch: 6: page 183] (128 words)

This Chapter outlines the UK’s industrial action laws, which are among the most restrictive in the developed world. ...
Subscribers only

The right to strike [ch: 6: pages 183-184] (547 words)

International criticism [ch: 6: page 184] (185 words)

Brexit and strike action [ch: 6: pages 184-185] (381 words)

The ‘immunities’ [ch: 6: page 185] (147 words)

Trade dispute [ch: 6: pages 186-187] (802 words)

Workplace reps [ch: 6: pages 187-188] (148 words)

Official or unofficial action [ch: 6: pages 188-189] (592 words)

Strike law and the Trade Union Act 2016 [ch: 6: pages 189-190] (331 words)

Balloting [ch: 6: page 190] (39 words)

Ballot thresholds [ch: 6: pages 190-192] (615 words)

Government threatens more restrictions for transport strikes [ch: 6: page 192] (347 words)

The ballot process [ch: 6: pages 193-197] (2,168 words)

Limited life of ballot mandate [ch: 6: page 197] (203 words)

Electronic strike balloting [ch: 6: page 198] (106 words)

Requirements to notify employers [ch: 6: pages 198-200] (1,083 words)

Ban on using agency workers to replace striking workers [ch: 6: page 200] (200 words)

Picketing [ch: 6: page 201] (162 words)

Picket supervisor [ch: 6: page 201] (209 words)

Letter of authorisation [ch: 6: pages 201-203] (737 words)

Picket location [ch: 6: pages 203-204] (513 words)

Criminal law [ch: 6: page 204] (174 words)

Injunctions [ch: 6: pages 204-205] (558 words)

Dismissal [ch: 6: page 206] (168 words)

Detriment short of dismissal [ch: 6: page 206] (221 words)

Deducting pay [ch: 6: pages 206-207] (453 words)

Lockouts [ch: 6: pages 207-208] (255 words)

State benefits for strikers [ch: 6: page 208] (134 words)

Annual reporting duty — industrial action [ch: 6: page 208] (146 words)

Chapter 7

7. Discrimination [ch 7: page 209] (460 words)

Equality law in England, Wales and Scotland is regulated by the Equality Act 2010 (EA 10). For the most part, equality law in Northern Ireland ...
Subscribers only

The protected characteristics [ch 7: page 210] (183 words)

Age [ch 7: pages 210-211] (305 words)

Employer’s defence of direct age discrimination [ch 7: pages 211-213] (1,009 words)

Disability [ch 7: pages 213-214] (635 words)

Knowledge of disability [ch 7: pages 215-216] (714 words)

Proving disability [ch 7: pages 216-217] (441 words)

People who had a disability but have since recovered [ch 7: page 217] (93 words)

Statutory guidance on the meaning of disability [ch 7: pages 217-218] (541 words)

COVID and disability [ch 7: pages 218-219] (575 words)

Certain conditions deemed to be a disability [ch 7: page 220] (132 words)

Progressive conditions [ch 7: page 221] (139 words)

Conditions that can be corrected by medication or treatment [ch 7: page 221] (184 words)

Recurring conditions [ch 7: page 221] (118 words)

Perceived disability [ch 7: page 222] (286 words)

Gender reassignment [ch 7: page 222] (701 words)

Marriage and civil partnership [ch 7: pages 224-225] (433 words)

Sexual orientation [ch 7: page 225] (38 words)

Race (including caste) [ch 7: pages 225-226] (354 words)

Religion or belief [ch 7: pages 226-228] (1,006 words)

Political beliefs [ch 7: page 228] (130 words)

Pregnancy or maternity [ch 7: pages 228-229] (214 words)

Sex [ch 7: page 229] (98 words)

Who is protected [ch 7: pages 229-230] (415 words)

Volunteers [ch 7: pages 230-231] (150 words)

Interns [ch 7: page 231] (126 words)

Workers outside Great Britain [ch 7: page 231] (90 words)

Illegality and discrimination [ch 7: pages 231-232] (257 words)

Conduct prohibited by the EA 10 [ch 7: page 232] (59 words)

Direct discrimination [ch 7: pages 232-233] (462 words)

Associative and perceptive discrimination [ch 7: pages 233-234] (336 words)

Less favourable treatment [ch 7: pages 234-235] (409 words)

Need for a comparator [ch 7: page 235] (197 words)

Detriment [ch 7: pages 235-236] (87 words)

Direct pregnancy and maternity discrimination [ch 7: pages 236-239] (1,192 words)

Surrogacy [ch 7: page 239] (168 words)

IVF [ch 7: pages 239-240] (334 words)

No defence to direct discrimination [ch 7: page 240] (112 words)

Exceptions [ch 7: pages 240-241] (316 words)

Indirect discrimination [ch 7: pages 241-243] (798 words)

Defence to indirect discrimination [ch 7: page 243] (451 words)

Harassment [ch 7: pages 244-247] (1,474 words)

Sexual harassment [ch 7: pages 247-248] (367 words)

Third party harassment [ch 7: pages 248-249] (407 words)

Victimisation [ch 7: pages 249-250] (704 words)

Disability discrimination [ch 7: pages 250-251] (86 words)

Discrimination ‘arising from’ disability [ch 7: pages 251-253] (1,081 words)

Reasonable adjustments [ch 7: pages 253-255] (866 words)

Auxiliary aids [ch 7: page 255] (70 words)

Physical features [ch 7: page 255] (66 words)

When is an adjustment “reasonable”? [ch 7: pages 256-258] (998 words)

Employer’s liability under EA 10 [ch 7: pages 258-260] (841 words)

In the course of employment [ch 7: page 260] (382 words)

Liability for agents [ch 7: page 261] (181 words)

Liability of unions [ch 7: page 261] (284 words)

Applying for jobs [ch 7: pages 262-263] (588 words)

Access to promotion and job changes [ch 7: page 263] (230 words)

Positive action [ch 7: pages 263-264] (80 words)

Positive action under section 158, EA 10 [ch 7: pages 264-266] (817 words)

Terms and conditions [ch 7: page 266] (177 words)

Challenging cuts to terms and conditions [ch 7: pages 266-267] (315 words)

Dress codes [ch 7: pages 267-268] (376 words)

Working hours and work organisation [ch 7: pages 268-270] (890 words)

Language at work [ch 7: pages 270-271] (463 words)

Disciplinary, capability and grievance procedures [ch 7: pages 271-272] (480 words)

Dismissal [ch 7: pages 272-273] (258 words)

Redundancy [ch 7: page 273] (26 words)

Retirement [ch 7: pages 273-274] (557 words)

Equal pay [ch 7: page 275] (302 words)

Sex equality clause [ch 7: pages 275-276] (418 words)

What is equal work? [ch 7: pages 276-277] (437 words)

Comparators [ch 7: pages 277-279] (850 words)

The ‘genuine material factor’ defence [ch 7: pages 279-280] (744 words)

Indirect discrimination and equal pay [ch 7: pages 280-281] (300 words)

Part-time work and equal pay [ch 7: page 281] (147 words)

Pieceworkers and equal pay [ch 7: page 281] (49 words)

Equal pay is a day one right [ch 7: page 281] (37 words)

Equal pay time limits [ch 7: pages 281-282] (221 words)

Equal pay remedies [ch 7: page 282] (211 words)

Gender pay gap reporting [ch 7: pages 282-284] (711 words)

Reporting of pay gap data for other protected characteristics [ch 7: pages 284-285] (234 words)

Asking questions about pay [ch 7: pages 285-286] (239 words)

The Public Sector Equality Duty [ch 7: pages 285-286] (665 words)

Bringing a discrimination claim [ch 7: pages 286-287] (152 words)

Proving discrimination — the burden of proof [ch 7: pages 287-288] (623 words)

Written grievance [ch 7: page 288] (211 words)

Asking questions about suspected discrimination [ch 7: page 289] (131 words)

Time limits [ch 7: page 289] (167 words)

Interim relief in Equality Act cases? [ch 7: page 289] (95 words)

Continuing discrimination [ch 7: page 290] (430 words)

Extending time to bring a discrimination claim [ch 7: page 291] (337 words)

Length of service [ch 7: page 291] (38 words)

Claims against bodies other than employers [ch 7: page 291] (40 words)

Claims against individual discriminators and harassers [ch 7: page 292] (117 words)

Power to make recommendations [ch 7: page 292] (272 words)

Compensation [ch 7: pages 292-294] (882 words)

Confidentiality clauses and discrimination [ch 7: page 294] (88 words)

Chapter 8

8. Sick pay and sickness absence [ch 8: pages 295-298] (1,258 words)

Over the period of the pandemic, there have been some temporary changes to arrangements for sick pay and sickness absence. Here are the key changes. ...
Subscribers only

Sickness absence and sick pay [ch 8: pages 298-299] (317 words)

Eligibility for SSP [ch 8: pages 299-300] (308 words)

The Fit Note [ch 8: pages 300-301] (667 words)

Occupational sick pay [ch 8: pages 301-304] (647 words)

Establishing a contractual entitlement to sick pay [ch 8: pages 302-304] (992 words)

Disability and sick pay [ch 8: page 305] (141 words)

Phased returns and sick pay [ch 8: page 305] (211 words)

Pregnancy and sick pay [ch 8: pages 305-306] (228 words)

Keeping in touch with staff off sick [ch 8: page 306] (273 words)

Sickness absence and holiday [ch 8: page 306] (40 words)

Absence management procedures [ch 8: page 307] (138 words)

Equality issues in absence management [ch 8: pages 307-308] (450 words)

Sickness absence dismissals and disability discrimination [ch 8: pages 308-309] (667 words)

Sickness absence and unfair dismissal law [ch 8: pages 309-310] (78 words)

Unfair dismissal and long-term sickness absence [ch 8: pages 310-313] (1,648 words)

Checklist: Representing a member facing dismissal for long-term sickness absence [ch 8: pages 313-314] (407 words)

Dismissal due to unsatisfactory attendance [ch 8: pages 315-317] (853 words)

Dismissal for pregnancy-related sickness absence [ch 8: pages 317-318] (596 words)

Sickness absence and frustration of contract [ch 8: page 318] (165 words)

Employees off sick during the notice period [ch 8: page 318] (68 words)

Sickness absence and strike action [ch 8: page 319] (226 words)

Sickness absence and redundancy selection [ch 8: pages 319-320] (266 words)

The HSE management standards on workplace stress [ch 8: page 320] (170 words)

Medical reports and the law [ch 8: pages 320-321] (324 words)

Pre-employment health checks [ch 8: page 321] (85 words)

Chapter 9

9. Time off and other rights at work for working parents and carers [ch 9: page 322] (324 words)

This Chapter sets out the rights that are available to working parents and carers. ...
Subscribers only

Rights to time off for antenatal care [ch 9: pages 322-323] (177 words)

Time off rights for partners to attend antenatal appointments [ch 9: page 323] (196 words)

Time off rights for prospective adopters [ch 9: page 323] (169 words)

Time off for IVF appointments [ch 9: page 324] (256 words)

Enforcing rights to time off [ch 9: page 324] (58 words)

New rights to statutory bereavement leave and pay [ch 9: pages 324-325] (366 words)

Plans for neonatal leave and leave for unpaid carers [ch 9: page 325] (112 words)

Eligibility for statutory maternity leave [ch 9: pages 325-326] (113 words)

Eligibility for statutory adoption leave [ch 9: page 326] (97 words)

Key elements of statutory maternity leave [ch 9: page 326] (81 words)

Key elements of statutory adoption leave [ch 9: page 326] (50 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory maternity leave [ch 9: pages 326-327] (208 words)

Giving notice of intention to take statutory adoption leave [ch 9: page 327] (116 words)

Statutory maternity leave start date [ch 9: page 327] (75 words)

Statutory adoption leave start date [ch 9: page 327] (45 words)

Returning to work early [ch 9: page 327] (45 words)

Sharing statutory maternity or adoption leave [ch 9: page 328] (99 words)

Eligibility for shared parental leave (SPL) [ch 9: pages 328-329] (348 words)

Key elements of Shared Parental Leave [ch 9: page 329] (202 words)

Giving notice of intention to take shared parental leave [ch 9: page 329] (139 words)

Can the mother or primary adopter change their mind? [ch 9: page 330] (143 words)

Notice of intention to take SPL [ch 9: pages 330-331] (288 words)

Continuous and discontinuous leave [ch 9: page 331] (117 words)

Challenging unfairness in the SPL system [ch 9: pages 331-332] (323 words)

Is SPL suitable? [ch 9: page 332] (243 words)

Rights during leave [ch 9: page 333] (248 words)

Contact during leave [ch 9: page 333] (152 words)

Keeping in Touch (KIT and SPLIT) days [ch 9: page 334] (286 words)

Ordinary Paternity Leave [ch 9: pages 334-335] (424 words)

Holiday entitlement during leave [ch 9: pages 335-336] (229 words)

Returning to work [ch 9: pages 336-337] (555 words)

Statutory Maternity Pay [ch 9: page 337] (305 words)

Maternity Allowance (MA) [ch 9: page 338] (171 words)

Statutory Adoption Pay [ch 9: page 338] (111 words)

Statutory Paternity Pay [ch 9: page 338] (40 words)

Statutory Shared Parental Pay [ch 9: pages 338-339] (181 words)

Contractual maternity, shared parental or adoption pay [ch 9: pages 339-340] (357 words)

Furlough and rights to parental leave and pay [ch 9: pages 340] (191 words)

Maternity leave and sick pay [ch 9: page 340] (125 words)

Maternity risk assessment and maternity suspension rights [ch 9: pages 341-342] (736 words)

Breastfeeding at work [ch 9: pages 342-343] (550 words)

Unpaid parental leave [ch 9: page 344] (381 words)

Leave for family emergencies [ch 9: pages 344-345] (276 words)

Caring for dependants during the Coronavirus pandemic [ch 9: pages 345-346] (332 words)

The right to request flexible working [ch 9: pages 346-347] (317 words)

The employee’s request [ch 9: page 347] (231 words)

The employer’s response [ch 9: pages 347-348] (220 words)

The decision [ch 9: pages 348-349] (654 words)

Flexible working and discrimination [ch 9: pages 349-350] (147 words)

Enforcing the right to request flexible working [ch 9: page 350] (176 words)

Chapter 10

10. Dismissal [ch 10: page 351] (205 words)

To bring a claim for unfair dismissal you must: ...
Subscribers only

What is a dismissal? [ch 10: pages 351-353] (1,066 words)

Rights to notice and notice pay [ch 10: page 354] (136 words)

When employers give notice [ch 10: pages 354-356] (809 words)

When employees give notice [ch 10: page 356] (253 words)

Notice pay during sickness absence [ch 10: page 356] (94 words)

Non-renewal of a fixed-term contract [ch 10: pages 356-357] (80 words)

Constructive dismissal [ch 10: page 357] (132 words)

Fundamental contract breach [ch 10: pages 357-358] (350 words)

Resignation must be in response to the breach [ch 10: page 358] (121 words)

The employee must not have waived the breach [ch 10: pages 358-360] (732 words)

Last straw cases [ch 10: page 360] (217 words)

Grievance [ch 10: pages 360-361] (153 words)

The Acas Code on grievance procedures [ch 10: page 361] (307 words)

Constructive dismissal — the main risks [ch 10: pages 362-363] (588 words)

What makes a dismissal unfair [ch 10: pages 363-364] (224 words)

The five statutory fair reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 364] (192 words)

Establishing the reason for dismissal [ch 10: pages 364-366] (739 words)

The right to written reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 366] (131 words)

Was the dismissal reasonable? [ch 10: page 366] (94 words)

The band of reasonable responses [ch 10: pages 366-367] (289 words)

The importance of consistency [ch 10: pages 367-368] (400 words)

Capability dismissals [ch 10: pages 368-369] (367 words)

Conduct dismissals [ch 10: pages 369-370] (546 words)

Gross misconduct [ch 10: pages 370-371] (363 words)

Disciplinary procedures [ch 10: pages 371-375] (1,819 words)

Disciplinaries during the Coronavirus pandemic [ch 10: pages 375-376] (348 words)

Warnings [ch 10: pages 376-378] (792 words)

Appeals [ch 10: pages 378-379] (691 words)

Redundancy [ch 10: page 380] (130 words)

Dismissals to comply with a legal duty or restriction [ch 10: page 380] (72 words)

Loss of driving licence [ch 10: page 380] (71 words)

Immigration status [ch 10: pages 380-381] (356 words)

Dismissals for some other substantial reason [ch 10: page 381] (193 words)

Dismissal for refusing to agree changes to terms and conditions [ch 10: pages 382-384] (956 words)

Dismissals due to breakdown in trust and confidence [ch 10: page 384] (123 words)

Dismissals due to third party pressure [ch 10: pages 384-385] (382 words)

Dismissal for refusing to sign a restrictive covenant [ch 10: page 385] (83 words)

Dismissal for manifesting offensive political opinions [ch 10: page 385] (115 words)

Dismissal due to return of original post-holder [ch 10: page 386] (114 words)

Dismissal for ending and non-renewal of a fixed-term contract [ch 10: page 386] (123 words)

Employees accused of a criminal offence [ch 10: pages 386-387] (263 words)

Retirement not a fair reason for dismissal [ch 10: page 387] (90 words)

Automatically unfair reasons for dismissal [ch 10: page 387] (80 words)

Dismissal and pregnancy and other parental rights [ch 10: pages 387-388] (693 words)

Dismissals and business transfers [ch 10: page 389] (85 words)

Dismissals and trade union membership [ch 10: pages 389-390] (496 words)

Dismissals and union recognition [ch 10: page 390] (26 words)

Dismissals and blacklisting [ch 10: page 390] (35 words)

Dismissals and representation rights [ch 10: page 390] (34 words)

Dismissal and industrial action [ch 10: pages 390-392] (449 words)

Dismissal for enforcing a statutory right [ch 10: page 391] (120 words)

Dismissals and spent convictions [ch 10: page 392] (43 words)

Dismissal of part-time, fixed-term or employed agency workers [ch 10: page 392] (35 words)

Dismissal of employees on zero hours contracts [ch 10: page 392] (43 words)

Dismissals related to health and safety [ch 10: pages 392-393] (542 words)

Dismissal for refusing to work on Sundays [ch 10: page 393] (32 words)

Employee representatives and pension fund trustees [ch 10: page 393] (58 words)

Pension auto-enrolment [ch 10: page 394] (30 words)

National Minimum Wage and working time rights [ch 10: page 394] (37 words)

Dismissal for whistleblowing [ch 10: page 394] (31 words)

The effective date of termination [ch 10: pages 394-395] (420 words)

Extending time to bring an unfair dismissal claim [ch 10: pages 395-396] (806 words)

Continuous employment [ch 10: pages 396-397] (413 words)

Statutory rules on service continuity [ch 10: pages 397-399] (790 words)

Illegality and unfair dismissal rights [ch 10: pages 399-400] (276 words)

Interim relief [ch 10: pages 400-402] (918 words)

Remedies: reinstatement or re-engagement [ch 10: pages 402-404] (719 words)

The basic award [ch 10: page 404] (322 words)

The compensatory award [ch 10: page 405] (172 words)

What can be claimed [ch 10: page 405] (218 words)

Mitigating losses [ch 10: pages 406-407] (601 words)

Contributory fault [ch 10: page 407] (246 words)

Other deductions and adjustments [ch 10: pages 407-408] (266 words)

The statutory cap [ch 10: page 408] (172 words)

The additional award [ch 10: page 408] (59 words)

Interest and tax [ch 10: page 409] (112 words)

Insolvency [ch 10: page 409] (200 words)

Wrongful dismissal [ch 10: pages 409-410] (195 words)

The statutory right to be accompanied [ch 10: pages 410--412] (1,163 words)

Chapter 11

11. Redundancy [ch 11: page 413] (141 words)

This Chapter sets out the individual rights of workers who are made redundant, unions’ statutory rights to collective consultation when large scale ...
Subscribers only

Redundancies and the law [ch 11: pages 413-414] (359 words)

What if there is less work (and fewer hours) but no cut in headcount? [ch 11: pages 414-415] (405 words)

Relocation redundancy [ch 11: pages 415-416] (638 words)

Reorganisation or change in duties [ch 11: pages 416-417] (558 words)

Has there been a dismissal for redundancy? [ch 11: page 417] (114 words)

Voluntary redundancy [ch 11: page 418] (393 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts [ch 11: page 419] (403 words)

Notice [ch 11: page 420] (318 words)

Collective redundancy consultation [ch 11: pages 420-421] (432 words)

The duty to provide information to reps [ch 11: pages 421-422] (168 words)

Collective consultation, data protection and confidentiality [ch 11: page 422] (150 words)

When must consultation begin? [ch 11: pages 422-423] (583 words)

The subject matter of collective consultation [ch 11: pages 424-425] (793 words)

When does consultation end? [ch 11: pages 425-426] (88 words)

Calculating the number of employees [ch 11: page 426] (171 words)

Consultation over changes to terms and conditions [ch 11: page 426] (149 words)

Ending of fixed-term contracts [ch 11: pages 426-427] (175 words)

The mechanics of collective consultation [ch 11: page 427] (71 words)

Who should be consulted [ch 11: pages 427-429] (696 words)

Rights to time off, facilities and training [ch 11: page 429] (123 words)

The employer’s obligation to notify BEIS [ch 11: page 429] (93 words)

Protective award for failure to consult collectively [ch 11: page 429] (184 words)

Calculating the protective award [ch 11: page 430] (265 words)

The ‘special circumstances’ defence [ch 11: pages 430-432] (758 words)

UK employees based overseas [ch 11: page 432] (113 words)

Selection for redundancy [ch 11: pages 432-433] (470 words)

Selection pool [ch 11: pages 433-434] (244 words)

Selection criteria and methods [ch 11: page 434] (284 words)

Redundancy selection and COVID 19 [ch 11: pages 435-436] (452 words)

Disability [ch 11: pages 436-437] (462 words)

Age [ch 11: page 437] (86 words)

Last in, first out [ch 11: pages 437-438] (200 words)

Trade union membership and activities [ch 11: page 438] (333 words)

Sex, pregnancy and maternity discrimination [ch 11: pages 439-440] (582 words)

Part-time and fixed-term employees [ch 11: page 440] (268 words)

Apprentices [ch 11: pages 441-442] (610 words)

Individual redundancy consultation [ch 11: pages 442-445] (980 words)

Alternative work [ch 11: page 445] (357 words)

The statutory trial period [ch 11: pages 445-446] (459 words)

What is suitable alternative employment [ch 11: pages 446-448] (642 words)

Enhanced duty to offer suitable available vacancy [ch 11: pages 448-451] (1,189 words)

Looking for work [ch 11: page 451] (104 words)

Unfair dismissal and redundancy [ch 11: pages 451-453] (568 words)

Challenging redundancy dismissals [ch 11: pages 453-454] (434 words)

Qualifying for redundancy rights [ch 11: page 454] (107 words)

Statutory redundancy pay [ch 11: pages 454-456] (662 words)

Enhanced redundancy pay [ch 11: page 456] (18 words)

Proving a contractual right to redundancy pay [ch 11: pages 456-458] (854 words)

Redundancy pay and age discrimination [ch 11: page 458] (140 words)

Government U-turn over cap to public sector exit payments [ch 11: pages 458-459] (240 words)

‘Claw-back’ of exit payments? [ch 11: page 459] (118 words)

Redundancy payments and tax [ch 11: page 459] (76 words)

Redundancy pay linked to lay-off and short time working [ch 11: pages 460-461] (499 words)

Redundancy payments and insolvency [ch 11: page 461] (239 words)

Claiming redundancy payments from the RPO [ch 11: pages 461-463] (720 words)

Chapter 12

12. Business transfers and contracting out — TUPE [ch 12: page 464] (389 words)

Business transfers and outsourcing, and their effect on the employment relationship, are regulated by the Transfer of Undertakings (Protection of ...
Subscribers only

Some key facts about TUPE [ch 12: pages 465-466] (469 words)

Who is covered by TUPE? [ch 12: page 466] (309 words)

Relevant transfers [ch 12: page 467] (154 words)

Business transfers [ch 12: pages 467-468] (609 words)

Service provision changes [ch 12: pages 468-469] (247 words)

No change in commissioning client [ch 12: page 469] (237 words)

Similarity of activities [ch 12: pages 470-471] (503 words)

Organised grouping of employees [ch 12: pages 471-472] (558 words)

Statutory exceptions to service provision change [ch 12: page 472] (69 words)

Single specific event or task of short-term duration [ch 12: pages 472-473] (485 words)

Activities consisting of the supply of goods [ch 12: pages 473-474] (189 words)

Transfers to more than one transferee [ch 12: page 474] (320 words)

Service fragmentation [ch 12: pages 474-475] (398 words)

Who transfers [ch 12: pages 475-478] (1,162 words)

The transfer date [ch 12: page 478] (126 words)

Objecting to a transfer [ch 12: page 478] (146 words)

Transfer causing substantial detrimental change [ch 12: page 479] (394 words)

Workforce reorganisation before a transfer [ch 12: pages 479-481] (875 words)

Consultation and collective rights under TUPE [ch 12: pages 481-482] (302 words)

Who must be informed and consulted [ch 12: pages 482-483] (590 words)

What information must be provided to reps [ch 12: pages 483-484] (267 words)

Timescale for TUPE consultation [ch 12: pages 484-485] (302 words)

Enforcement — protective award [ch 12: page 485] (249 words)

The special circumstances defence [ch 12: page 485] (111 words)

Pre-transfer consultation on collective redundancies [ch 12: pages 485-487] (691 words)

Employee liability information [ch 12: pages 487-488] (156 words)

Transfers within public administration [ch 12: pages 488] (209 words)

Return of the two-tier workforce [ch 12: pages 488-489] (317 words)

The effect of TUPE on terms and conditions [ch 12: pages 489-490] (578 words)

TUPE and pensions [ch 12: pages 490-491] (385 words)

Early retirement benefits [ch 12: page 491] (178 words)

Occupational pensions [ch 12: page 492] (328 words)

Fair Deal for Pensions — public service outsourcing [ch 12: pages 492-493] (496 words)

Collective agreements and union recognition [ch 12: page 494] (161 words)

TUPE and contract change [ch 12: page 494] (286 words)

Changes to individual contract terms [ch 12: page 495] (232 words)

Economic, technical or organisational reason [ch 12: pages 495-496] (564 words)

Changes to collective terms [ch 12: pages 496-497] (353 words)

TUPE and sector-level bargaining [ch 12: pages 497-498] (601 words)

Contract changes unconnected to the transfer [ch 12: page 499] (198 words)

How long are contract terms protected by TUPE? [ch 12: page 499] (140 words)

TUPE protection against unfair dismissal [ch 12: pages 499-501] (902 words)

TUPE and insolvency [ch 12: pages 501-502] (242 words)

Varying contract terms in an insolvency [ch 12: page 502] (198 words)

Winding up the business [ch 12: page 503] (91 words)

Chapter 13

13. Whistleblowing [ch 13: page 504] (301 words)

The Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 (PIDA) introduced provisions in a new Part IVA to the Employment Rights Act (ERA) to protect employees and ...
Subscribers only

Who is protected by the law [ch 13: pages 504-505] (516 words)

What disclosures are protected? [ch 13: pages 506-507] (702 words)

Who should disclosures be made to? [ch 13: pages 507-508] (240 words)

Claims and remedies [ch 13: page 508] (86 words)

Dismissal [ch 13: page 508] (87 words)

Detriment [ch 13: pages 508-509] (557 words)

Chapter 14

14. Bringing a tribunal claim [ch 14: page 510] (31 words)

This Chapter summarises the formal steps involved in bringing an employment tribunal (ET) claim and the main stages of the tribunal process. ...
Subscribers only

First steps — preparing for a claim [ch 14: page 510] (341 words)

Employment tribunal system during the Coronavirus pandemic [ch 14: pages 511-512] (472 words)

Acas Early Conciliation [ch 14: pages 512-514] (1,033 words)

Tribunal time limits and Acas Early Conciliation [ch 14: pages 514-515] (543 words)

Abolition of employment tribunal fees [ch 14: page 515] (158 words)

ET1 Claim Form [ch 14: pages 515-516] (346 words)

What happens to the ET1 Claim form [ch 14: pages 516-517] (370 words)

Faster hearing of simple money claims [ch 14: page 517] (101 words)

New functions for Legal Officers [ch 14: page 517] (134 words)

ET time limits [ch 14: page 518] (252 words)

The overriding objective [ch 14: page 518] (70 words)

Initial consideration [ch 14: page 518] (106 words)

Case management orders [ch 14: page 519] (170 words)

Making changes to the claim [ch 14: page 519] (209 words)

Judicial Assessment [ch 14: page 519] (86 words)

Schedule of loss, statement of agreed facts and chronology [ch 14: page 520] (207 words)

Preliminary hearings [ch 14: page 520] (203 words)

Deposit order [ch 14: pages 520-521] (202 words)

Striking out [ch 14: page 521] (230 words)

Default judgment [ch 14: page 521] (42 words)

Unless Orders [ch 14: pages 521-522] (279 words)

Exchange of documents [ch 14: pages 522-524] (761 words)

Postponement requests [ch 14: page 524] (229 words)

Witness statements [ch 14: pages 524-525] (306 words)

The ET panel [ch 14: page 525] (172 words)

The main hearing [ch 14: pages 525-526] (427 words)

Judgment [ch 14: page 526] (148 words)

Costs orders [ch 14: pages 527-528] (581 words)

Enforcing ET awards and costs orders [ch 14: page 528] (201 words)

Financial penalties for ‘aggravated breach’ [ch 14: page 529] (72 words)

Appealing to the Employment Appeal Tribunal [ch 14: page 529] (237 words)

Sources of legal advice and support [ch 14: page 529] (68 words)

Employees outside Great Britain [ch 14: pages 529-530] (101 words)

Settling a claim [ch 14: pages 530-532] (856 words)

Without prejudice discussions [ch 14: page 532] (130 words)

Protected conversations [ch 14: pages 532-534] (686 words)

Improper behaviour [ch 14: page 534] (197 words)

Judicial mediation [ch 14: page 534] (87 words)

In-work mediation [ch 14: page 535] (99 words)

Chapter 15

15. Data protection, surveillance and monitoring [ch 15: page 536] (430 words)

In practice, Brexit is unlikely to impact significantly on data protection in the workplace, at least in the medium term, although the Information ...
Subscribers only

The UK General Data Protection Regulation (UK GDPR) [ch 15: pages 537-541] (1,868 words)

Casework [ch 15: page 541] (166 words)

Data subject access requests [ch 15: pages 541-542] (251 words)

Monitoring at work [ch 15: pages 542-544] (1,039 words)

Privacy and data protection during the Coronavirus pandemic [ch 15: pages 544-545] (294 words)

Further information

Further information (825 words)

Copies of relevant statutes and regulations are available online at: www.legislation.gov.uk. In Northern Ireland, legislation is published on the ...
Subscribers only