LRD Booklets October 2021

Health and Safety Law 2021

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Introduction

Introduction [pages 9-13] (1,666 words)

This latest edition of the Labour Research Department’s annual guide to health and safety law is being published shortly after the government swept ...
Open access

Chapter 1

1. Working safely through the coronavirus pandemic [ch 1: page 14] (60 words)

This chapter summarises the main laws, and official and union guidance around the major health and safety issue currently affecting all workers and ...
Subscribers only

What is Covid-19? [ch 1: pages 14-15] (655 words)

How is Covid-19 spread? [ch 1: page 16] (188 words)

Symptoms and effects [ch 1: pages 16-17] (337 words)

Who is most at risk? [ch 1: page 17] (302 words)

Impact of Covid on BAME workers and communities [ch 1: pages 17-18] (337 words)

Lifting of Covid restrictions from 19 July 2021 [ch 1: pages 18-19] (543 words)

Self-isolating [ch 1: page 20] (230 words)

A safe return to work [ch 1: pages 20-21] (470 words)

Working safely during coronavirus (Covid-19) — a summary of the new guidance [ch 1: pages 21-22] (333 words)

Carrying out a risk assessment that includes the risk of Covid-19 [ch 1: pages 22-23] (299 words)

Reducing the risk [ch 1: pages 23-24] (406 words)

Working from home [ch 1: page 24] (179 words)

Legionnaires’ disease in unoccupied workplaces [ch 1: page 24] (86 words)

Protecting people at higher risk [ch 1: pages 24-25] (319 words)

Ventilation [ch 1: page 25] (194 words)

Reducing social contact [ch 1: pages 25-26] (101 words)

Providing and explaining guidance [ch 1: page 26] (121 words)

Cleaning the workplace [ch 1: pages 26-27] (265 words)

Personal protective equipment (PPE) and face coverings [ch 1: page 27] (235 words)

Workforce management [ch 1: pages 27-28] (315 words)

Tests and vaccinations [ch 1: page 28] (181 words)

Safety on public transport — travelling to and from work [ch 1: pages 28-29] (118 words)

NHS Test and Trace [ch 1: page 29] (192 words)

Guidance for employers [ch 1: pages 29-30] (403 words)

Guidance for workers [ch 1: pages 30-31] (262 words)

Asymptomatic testing [ch 1: pages 31-32] (426 words)

Daily contact testing [ch 1: page 32] (150 words)

Financial security for workers who must self-isolate [ch 1: pages 32-33] (560 words)

Working at home safely [ch 1: pages 33-35] (1,051 words)

The UK’s safety record during the pandemic and calls for justice [ch 1: page 36] (404 words)

Chapter 2

2. The structure of health and safety law [ch 2: page 37] (62 words)

This chapter provides an overview of UK health and safety law, starting with the laws and regulations most relevant to the current Covid-19 pandemic ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 2: page 37] (145 words)

Health and safety law and coronavirus [ch 2: pages 37-39] (666 words)

Health and Safety at Work etc Act 1974 [ch 2: pages 39-40] (456 words)

Where does the HSWA apply? [ch 2: page 40] (180 words)

Key features of the HSWA [ch 2: pages 40-42] (971 words)

Personal injury claims victory [ch 2: page 43] (184 words)

The European Union, UK health and safety law and Brexit [ch 2: pages 43-44] (753 words)

Immediate changes to health and safety regulation post-Brexit from 1 January 2021 [ch 2: page 45] (66 words)

IWGB union wins legal case on government failure to grant workers EU health and safety protections [ch 2: page 45] (247 words)

Regulations, Approved Codes of Practice and guidance [ch 2: pages 45-46] (327 words)

Directors’ duties [ch 2: pages 46-47] (453 words)

Common law and statute law [ch 2: pages 47-48] (322 words)

Chapter 3

3. The health and safety inspection and enforcement regime [ch 3: page 49] (106 words)

This chapter covers the key agencies that enforce health and safety law in the UK including the Health and Safety Executive (HSE), local authorities ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 3: page 49] (228 words)

Health and safety inspections and enforcement during coronavirus [ch 3: pages 49-52] (1,103 words)

Enforcement agencies and regulators [ch 3: pages 52-54] (731 words)

Inspections [ch 3: pages 54-55] (373 words)

Paying for enforcement — fee for intervention [ch 3: pages 55] (312 words)

Penalties — notices and fines [ch 3: page 56] (227 words)

Sentencing guidelines [ch 3: pages 56-58] (979 words)

HSE Enforcement Policy Statement [ch 3: pages 58-59] (266 words)

Investigating work-related deaths [ch 3: page 59] (233 words)

Corporate manslaughter [ch 3: pages 60-62] (1,060 words)

Culpable homicide Bill [ch 3: page 62] (49 words)

Sentencing Council guidelines for gross negligence manslaughter [ch 3: pages 62-63] (252 words)

Grenfell Tower fire [ch 3: page 63] (59 words)

Crown immunity [ch 3: page 63] (134 words)

Chapter 4

4. The management of health and safety at work [ch 4: page 64] (127 words)

This chapter covers the main regulations and accompanying guidance governing health and safety at work, the Management of Health and Safety at Work ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 4: page 64] (66 words)

The Management Regulations [ch 4: page 64] (101 words)

Risk assessments [ch 4: pages 64-66] (1,040 words)

Managing the risks of coronavirus [ch 4: pages 67-69] (868 words)

Managing coronavirus risks for expectant mothers and vulnerable groups [ch 4: pages 69-70] (602 words)

The principles of prevention [ch 4: pages 70-71] (144 words)

Monitoring [ch 4: page 71] (56 words)

Health surveillance [ch 4: page 71] (174 words)

Appointment of safety specialists [ch 4: pages 71-72] (69 words)

Procedures for serious and imminent danger [ch 4: page 72] (259 words)

Information and training [ch 4: pages 72-73] (402 words)

Contract workers [ch 4: page 73] (46 words)

Temporary workers [ch 4: page 73] (78 words)

New and expectant mothers [ch 4: pages 73-74] (364 words)

Workplace hazards for pregnant and breastfeeding women [ch 4: pages 74-75] (484 words)

Health, safety and pregnancy and maternity case law [ch 4: pages 76-77] (984 words)

Pregnant agency workers [ch 4: page 78] (107 words)

Pregnancy and night work [ch 4: page 78] (50 words)

HSE guidance [ch 4: page 78] (118 words)

Safety and pregnancy guide for reps [ch 4: pages 78-79] (225 words)

Young workers [ch 4: pages 79-80] (409 words)

Chapter 5

5. Safety reps, safety committees and taking action on health and safety [ch 5: page 81] (169 words)

This chapter covers the latest official and union guidance on the role and statutory rights of safety reps, of all workers to take action on health ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 5: page 81] (98 words)

Union safety reps and the coronavirus crisis [ch 5: pages 81-83] (794 words)

The right to withdraw from an unsafe place of work [ch 5: pages 83-87] (1,673 words)

The Safety Representatives and Safety Committees Regulations (SRSCR) [ch 5: page 87] (75 words)

The union effect on health and safety [ch 5: pages 87-88] (269 words)

Appointing safety reps [ch 5: pages 88-89] (377 words)

Safety reps’ functions [ch 5: page 89] (227 words)

Consultation [ch 5: page 90] (265 words)

Facilities for safety reps [ch 5: pages 90-91] (160 words)

Safety reps’ legal rights to paid time off [ch 5: page 91] (309 words)

Case law on time off for safety reps [ch 5: pages 91-93] (750 words)

Right to information [ch 5: pages 93-94] (245 words)

Safety committees [ch 5: page 94] (152 words)

Enforcement of the SRSCR [ch 5: page 94] (116 words)

Reporting problems to the HSE [ch 5: pages 94-95] (301 words)

Consultation where there is no union recognition [ch 5: pages 95-96] (360 words)

Safety reps representing all staff [ch 5: page 96] (69 words)

Scope of employer’s obligation to consult [ch 5: page 96] (100 words)

The need for stronger regulations [ch 5: pages 96-97] (476 words)

Trade Union Act 2016 — threat to trade union facility time [ch 5: pages 97-99] (507 words)

Legal protection for workers taking action on safety [ch 5: pages 99-100] (512 words)

Protection for leaving the place of work [ch 5: pages 100-101] (675 words)

Reinstatement [ch 5: pages 101-102] (317 words)

Compensation [ch 5: page 102] (69 words)

Whistleblowing — the Public Interest Disclosure Act 1998 [ch 5: page 102] (121 words)

Who is protected? [ch 5: pages 102-103] (318 words)

What disclosures are protected? [ch 5: pages 103-105] (807 words)

Liability and compensation [ch 5: pages 105-106] (301 words)

Take advice before whistleblowing! [ch 5: page 106] (142 words)

Interim relief [ch 5: pages 106-107] (282 words)

Taking a case to a tribunal [ch 5: page 107] (303 words)

Blacklisting [ch 5: pages 107-109] (844 words)

Chapter 6

6. The workplace and the working environment [ch 6: page 110] (99 words)

This chapter covers the contents of, and the latest Health and Safety Executive (HSE) and union guidance around implementing, the Workplace (Health, ...
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Key changes and developments [ch 6: page 110] (101 words)

Regulation on minimum workplace standards [ch 6: pages 110-111] (272 words)

Stability and solidity [ch 6: page 111] (71 words)

Maintenance [ch 6: page 111] (57 words)

Opening workplaces safely while reducing the risk of spreading Covid-19 [ch 6: pages 111-112] (203 words)

Ventilation [ch 6: page 112] (131 words)

Covid and poorly ventilated spaces [ch 6: pages 112-113] (365 words)

Using CO2 monitors [ch 6: page 113] (238 words)

HSE guidance [ch 6: pages 113-114] (300 words)

TUC, union and Hazards guidance [ch 6: pages 114-115] (331 words)

Temperature [ch 6: pages 115-116] (375 words)

Lighting [ch 6: page 116] (121 words)

Cleanliness [ch 6: page 116] (35 words)

Cleaning during the Covid-19 pandemic [ch 6: pages 116-117] (379 words)

HSE advice [ch 6: page 117] (57 words)

Space [ch 6: page 117] (147 words)

Social distancing during the Covid-19 pandemic [ch 6: pages 117-118] (171 words)

Workstations and seating [ch 6: page 118] (97 words)

Worksations during the Covid-19 pandemic [ch 6: page 118] (122 words)

Condition of floors [ch 6: page 118] (74 words)

Falls or falling objects [ch 6: page 118] (34 words)

Transparent surfaces and windows [ch 6: page 119] (66 words)

Doors and gates [ch 6: page 119] (27 words)

Organisation of traffic routes [ch 6: page 119] (163 words)

Escalators and moving walkways [ch 6: page 119] (31 words)

Sanitary, washing and drinking facilities [ch 6: pages 119-120] (272 words)

Extra outdoor facilities during the Covid-19 pandemic [ch 6: page 120] (64 words)

Changing and storing clothing [ch 6: page 120] (242 words)

Rest and eating facilities [ch 6: page 121] (167 words)

Disabled workers [ch 6: page 121] (60 words)

Accommodating breastfeeding [ch 6: pages 121-122] (345 words)

Smoking [ch 6: pages 122-124] (1,077 words)

Driving at work [ch 6: pages 124-125] (439 words)

Mobile phones and driving [ch 6: pages 125-126] (617 words)

Drug-driving limits [ch 6: pages 126-127] (477 words)

Driving standards for vision, diabetes and epilepsy [ch 6: page 128] (303 words)

Industry-specific health and safety laws [ch 6: page 128] (115 words)

Construction [ch 6: pages 128-130] (377 words)

Mines [ch 6: page 130] (67 words)

Offshore [ch 6: page 130] (157 words)

Chapter 7

7. Hazardous substances [ch 7: page 131] (117 words)

This chapter summarises the requirements of relevant legislation and regulations referring to hazardous substances in the workplace, as well as the ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 7: page 131] (177 words)

Control of Substances Hazardous to Health (COSHH) [ch 7: pages 131-137] (2,058 words)

Carcinogens and mutagens [ch 7: page 137] (309 words)

Diesel fumes [ch 7: pages 138-139] (535 words)

Campaign to reduce the exposure limit for silica dust [ch 7: page 139] (241 words)

Occupational asthma [ch 7: page 140] (179 words)

Legionnaires’ disease [ch 7: page 140] (216 words)

Needlestick or sharps injuries [ch 7: pages 140-141] (397 words)

Chemicals information and packaging [ch 7: pages 141-142] (165 words)

Chemicals legislation in the UK and EU after Brexit [ch 7: pages 142-143] (415 words)

Safety data sheets [ch 7: pages 143-144] (225 words)

Major accident hazards [ch 7: pages 144-145] (543 words)

Dangerous substances and explosive atmospheres [ch 7: pages 145-146] (475 words)

Asbestos [ch 7: pages 146-147] (511 words)

Controlling risks from asbestos [ch 7: page 147] (211 words)

The duty to manage asbestos [ch 7: page 148] (343 words)

Post implementation review of the Control of Asbestos Regulations 2012 [ch 7: page 149] (251 words)

Compensation for asbestos-related diseases [ch 7: pages 149151] (635 words)

Pleural plaques [ch 7: page 151] (165 words)

Lead [ch 7: pages 151-153] (705 words)

Transport of dangerous goods [ch 7: page 153] (132 words)

Genetically modified organisms [ch 7: pages 153-154] (302 words)

Pesticides [ch 7: page 154] (159 words)

Chapter 8

8. Equipment and clothing at work [ch 8: page 155] (122 words)

This chapter covers the regulations and latest union and Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance around the use of equipment and staying safe in ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 8: page 155] (213 words)

Work equipment and coronavirus [ch 8: pages 155] (85 words)

Covid: and PPE: Front-line workers [ch 8: pages 156-157] (756 words)

Covid: Face coverings [ch 8: page 157] (119 words)

Covid: union advice on PPE [ch 8: pages 157-158] (270 words)

Homeworking and display screen equipment [ch 8: page 158] (112 words)

Display screen equipment [ch 8: pages 158-160] (830 words)

Breaks for DSE users [ch 8: pages 160-161] (345 words)

Machinery and other equipment [ch 8: pages 161-163] (996 words)

Lifting operations and equipment [ch 8: page 163] (206 words)

Supplying equipment post Brexit [ch 8: page 164] (246 words)

Work at height [ch 8: pages 164-165] (294 words)

Personal protective equipment [ch 8: pages 165-167] (1,134 words)

Head protection and turbans [ch 8: pages 167-168] (59 words)

Product standards rules [ch 8: page 168] (144 words)

Women’s PPE [ch 8: page 168] (210 words)

Discriminatory dress codes [ch 8: pages 168-169] (440 words)

Chapter 9

9. Physical hazards at work [ch 9: page 170] (165 words)

This chapter covers the regulations and latest union and Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance around physical hazards in the workplace. It ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 9: page 170] (123 words)

Physical hazards and coronavirus [ch 9: pages 170-171] (363 words)

Manual handling [ch 9: pages 171-172] (558 words)

Manual handling case law [ch 9: pages 172-174] (672 words)

Consultation with safety reps [ch 9: page 174] (331 words)

Manual handling tools [ch 9: pages 175-176] (777 words)

Protection under the Equality Act 2010 [ch 9: pages 176-177] (362 words)

Fire in buildings [ch 9: page 177] (213 words)

Building Regulations [ch 9: page 178] (234 words)

Building Safety Bill [ch 9: pages 178-179] (469 words)

Fire safety in workplaces [ch 9: pages 179-180] (260 words)

General fire precautions [ch 9: page 180] (257 words)

Risk assessment [ch 9: page 180] (78 words)

Preventive and protection measures [ch 9: pages 180-181] (393 words)

Information and training [ch 9: page 182] (141 words)

Enforcement [ch 9: page 182] (143 words)

Fire safety law and guidance [ch 9: page 182] (94 words)

Noise [ch 9: pages 182-183] (145 words)

Noise levels [ch 9: page 183] (316 words)

Noise risk assessment [ch 9: page 184] (278 words)

Controlling noise [ch 9: pages 184-185] (225 words)

Hearing protection [ch 9: pages 185-186] (329 words)

Information and training [ch 9: page 186] (215 words)

Compensation for hearing loss [ch 9: page 186] (108 words)

Acoustic shock [ch 9: page 187] (469 words)

Voice damage [ch 9: page 188] (120 words)

Vibration [ch 9: pages 188-189] (530 words)

Radiation [ch 9: pages 189-191] (697 words)

Radiation emergencies preparation [ch 9: page 191] (167 words)

Electromagnetic fields [ch 9: pages 191-194] (966 words)

Artificial optical radiation [ch 9: pages 194-195] (417 words)

Electricity [ch 9: pages 195-196] (608 words)

Portable appliance testing [ch 9: page 196] (119 words)

Gas [ch 9: pages 196-197] (403 words)

Liquid Petroleum Gas (LPG) [ch 9: pages 197-198] (226 words)

Confined spaces [ch 9: page 198] (106 words)

Pressure systems [ch 9: page 198] (102 words)

Work in compressed air [ch 9: page 198] (99 words)

Chapter 10

10. Hours of work [ch 10: page 199] (137 words)

This chapter covers the regulations and latest union, Health and Safety Executive (HSE) guidance and case law related to working time. It starts by ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 10: page 199] (174 words)

Working time and the coronavirus pandemic [ch 10: pages 199] (86 words)

Coronavirus and holidays [ch 10: pages 199-201] (628 words)

Relaxing enforcement of the EU drivers’ hours rules in England, Scotland and Wales [ch 10: pages 201-202] (420 words)

The Working Time Regulations [ch 10: page 202] (354 words)

Working time rights — a summary [ch 10: page 203] (99 words)

What is working time? [ch 10: page 203] (112 words)

Travelling time [ch 10: page 204] (330 words)

Time spent on union duties [ch 10: page 204] (53 words)

Time spent on call [ch 10: pages 204-205] (540 words)

Pay while on call [ch 10: pages 205-206] (366 words)

Unmeasured time [ch 10: page 207] (58 words)

Who has WTR rights [ch 10: page 207] (110 words)

Working time rights in the ‘gig’ economy [ch 10: pages 207-208] (550 words)

Non-mobile transport and offshore workers [ch 10: page 208] (63 words)

Mobile transport workers [ch 10: page 209] (267 words)

Drivers’ working hours [ch 10: pages 209-210] (239 words)

WTR exclusions and special cases [ch 10: page 210] (261 words)

Children and young workers [ch 10: pages 210-211] (378 words)

The maximum working week [ch 10: page 211] (158 words)

The UK’s 48-hour opt-out [ch 10: page 212] (249 words)

Enforcing the 48-hour week [ch 10: pages 212-213] (367 words)

Night and shift work [ch 10: pages 213-214] (345 words)

Night worker health assessments [ch 10: page 214] (224 words)

Nightwork and pregnancy [ch 10: page 214] (193 words)

Health risks of night work [ch 10: page 215] (263 words)

Daily rest [ch 10: page 215] (34 words)

Weekly rest [ch 10: page 215] (90 words)

Rest breaks [ch 10: page 216] (433 words)

Compensatory rest [ch 10: pages 216-217] (279 words)

Recording working time [ch 10: pages 217-218] (295 words)

Collective action on working time [ch 10: page 218] (75 words)

Holidays and holiday pay [ch 10: pages 218-219] (403 words)

Holiday entitlement [ch 10: page 219] (144 words)

Payment for holidays [ch 10: pages 219-222] (1,041 words)

Timing of holidays [ch 10: page 222] (233 words)

Offshore oil workers and paid holiday [ch 10: page 222] (151 words)

Carrying unused leave forward [ch 10: pages 222-223] (411 words)

Sick leave and holiday [ch 10: page 223] (133 words)

Carrying forward holiday when sick [ch 10: pages 223-224] (362 words)

Claiming holiday pay in the employment tribunal [ch 10: pages 224-225] (484 words)

Workers missing out on holiday pay [ch 10: page 225] (220 words)

Bank holidays [ch 10: page 226] (70 words)

Sunday working [ch 10: page 226] (72 words)

Agency workers’ enhanced rights [ch 10: page 226] (181 words)

Part-time workers [ch 10: pages 226-227] (136 words)

WTR and collective and workforce agreements [ch 10: page 227] (59 words)

Enforcement of the WTR [ch 10: page 227] (117 words)

Protection against detrimental treatment [ch 10: page 227] (46 words)

Compensation for injury to feelings [ch 10: page 227] (143 words)

Chapter 11

11. Dealing with accidents, injuries and ill health [ch 11: page 228] (147 words)

This chapter covers the latest regulations, guidance and union campaigns related to workplace incidents and ill health. It first gives the latest on ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 11: page ] (191 words)

Reporting exposure to coronavirus at work [ch 11: page 228] (544 words)

Classification of Covid-19 as an occupational disease [ch 11: pages 228-230] (328 words)

Long Covid [ch 11: pages 230-231] (391 words)

First aid cover in non-healthcare settings during the pandemic [ch 11: pages 231-232] (257 words)

Recording and reporting accidents [ch 11: page 232] (114 words)

What is reportable under RIDDOR? [ch 11: pages 232-233] (353 words)

What is not reportable? [ch 11: pages 233-234] (394 words)

Road traffic accidents [ch 11: pages 234-235] (165 words)

Keeping records [ch 11: page 235] (193 words)

Statistics on death and injury [ch 11: pages 235-236] (258 words)

HSE statistics vastly underestimate problem [ch 11: pages 236-237] (367 words)

The accident book [ch 11: page 237] (162 words)

Accident investigation [ch 11: pages 237-238] (218 words)

Protecting health information [ch 11: pages 238-239] (431 words)

Safety reps and personal information [ch 11: page 239] (297 words)

Pre-employment health checks [ch 11: pages 239-240] (137 words)

First aid regulation [ch 11: pages 240-242] (959 words)

Mental health first aid [ch 11: page 242] (144 words)

Occupational health [ch 11: pages 242-243] (260 words)

Fit for Work [ch 11: page 243] (57 words)

Fit notes [ch 11: pages 243-244] (397 words)

Returning to work after long-term absence [ch 11: page 244] (144 words)

Chapter 12

12. Stress, bullying, harassment and violence [ch 12: page 245] (101 words)

This chapter explains how the law applies to mental health and issues stemming from interpersonal relationships at work. It starts with the mental ...
Subscribers only

Key changes and developments [ch 12: page 245] (175 words)

Psychosocial hazards and coronavirus [ch 12: pages 245-247] (880 words)

General duties of employers related to stress, bullying and violence [ch 12: page 247] (135 words)

TUC/HSE joint guidance on stress [ch 12: pages 247-249] (547 words)

Enforcement of the Management Standards [ch 12: page 249] (383 words)

Seeking legal redress for work-related stress [ch 12: pages 249-251] (621 words)

Mental health at work and discrimination [ch 12: pages 251-252] (623 words)

Bullying and harassment [ch 12: page 252] (94 words)

Sexual harassment [ch 12: pages 252-254] (492 words)

EHRC guidance on dealing with harassment [ch 12: page 254] (255 words)

Common law protection [ch 12: page 254] (128 words)

Protection under the Equality Act 2010 [ch 12: page 255] (241 words)

Non-disclosure agreements [ch 12: page 255] (102 words)

Other protections [ch 12: page 255] (216 words)

Constructive dismissal [ch 12: page 256] (293 words)

Protection from Harassment Act 1997 [ch 12: pages 256-257] (224 words)

Violence [ch 12: pages 257-258] (382 words)

Protection for emergency workers [ch 12: pages 258-259] (371 words)

Protection for retail and hospitality workers in Scotland [ch 12: page 259] (253 words)

Employer criminal liability [ch 12: pages 259-260] (243 words)

Vicarious liability [ch 12: pages 260-262] (976 words)

Domestic violence [ch 12: pages 262-263] (198 words)

Criminal Injuries Compensation Scheme [ch 12: page 263] (149 words)

Protection from dangerous dogs [ch 12: pages 263-264] (376 words)

Further information

Further information (421 words)

All regulations made since 1988 can be downloaded from the website at: www.legislation.gov.uk ...
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